* indicates monthly or quarterly data series

Research and development expenditure, percent of GDP, 2018 - Country rankings:

The average for 2018 based on 82 countries was 1.07 percent.The highest value was in Israel: 4.94 percent and the lowest value was in Mauritania: 0.01 percent. The indicator is available from 1996 to 2019. Below is a chart for all countries where data are available.

Measure: percent; Source: The United Nations
Select indicator
* indicates monthly or quarterly data series


Countries Research and development expenditure, 2018 Global rank Available data
Israel 4.94 1 1996 - 2018
South Korea 4.53 2 1996 - 2018
Sweden 3.31 3 1997 - 2018
Japan 3.28 4 1996 - 2018
Austria 3.17 5 1996 - 2019
Germany 3.13 6 1996 - 2018
Denmark 3.03 7 1996 - 2018
USA 2.83 8 1996 - 2018
Belgium 2.77 9 1996 - 2018
Finland 2.76 10 1996 - 2018
Euro area 2.22 11 1996 - 2018
France 2.19 12 1996 - 2018
Netherlands 2.16 13 1996 - 2018
China 2.14 14 1996 - 2018
Norway 2.07 15 1997 - 2018
Iceland 2.04 16 1997 - 2018
Slovenia 1.95 17 1996 - 2018
Czechia 1.93 18 1996 - 2018
UK 1.7 19 1996 - 2018
Canada 1.56 20 1996 - 2019
Hungary 1.53 21 1996 - 2018
Estonia 1.4 22 1998 - 2018
Italy 1.39 23 1996 - 2018
Portugal 1.35 24 1996 - 2018
UA Emirates 1.28 25 2011 - 2018
Spain 1.24 26 1996 - 2018
Luxembourg 1.21 27 2000 - 2018
Poland 1.21 28 1996 - 2018
Greece 1.18 29 1997 - 2018
Brazil 1.16 30 2000 - 2018
Ireland 1.15 31 1996 - 2018
Malaysia 1.04 32 1996 - 2018
Russia 0.98 33 1996 - 2018
Croatia 0.97 34 1999 - 2018
Lithuania 0.94 35 1996 - 2018
Serbia 0.92 36 1997 - 2018
Hong Kong 0.86 37 1998 - 2018
Slovakia 0.84 38 1996 - 2018
Bulgaria 0.76 39 1996 - 2018
Egypt 0.72 40 1996 - 2018
India 0.65 41 1996 - 2018
Latvia 0.64 42 1996 - 2018
Belarus 0.6 43 1996 - 2018
Tunisia 0.6 44 2002 - 2018
Malta 0.57 45 2002 - 2018
Cyprus 0.55 46 1998 - 2018
Qatar 0.51 47 2012 - 2018
Romania 0.5 48 1996 - 2018
Argentina 0.49 49 1996 - 2018
Ukraine 0.47 50 1997 - 2018
Uruguay 0.42 51 1996 - 2018
Costa Rica 0.38 52 1996 - 2018
North Macedonia 0.37 53 1997 - 2018
Montenegro 0.36 54 2003 - 2018
Mauritius 0.35 55 1997 - 2018
Mexico 0.31 56 1996 - 2018
Brunei 0.28 57 2002 - 2018
Georgia 0.28 58 1996 - 2018
Bermuda 0.26 59 1997 - 2018
Moldova 0.25 60 1996 - 2018
Colombia 0.23 61 1996 - 2018
Indonesia 0.23 62 2000 - 2018
Oman 0.22 63 2011 - 2018
Burundi 0.21 64 2007 - 2018
Macao 0.2 65 2001 - 2018
Armenia 0.19 66 1997 - 2018
Bosnia & Herz. 0.19 67 2003 - 2018
Azerbaijan 0.18 68 1996 - 2018
El Salvador 0.16 69 1998 - 2018
Paraguay 0.15 70 2001 - 2018
Peru 0.13 71 1997 - 2018
Uzbekistan 0.13 72 2000 - 2018
Kazakhstan 0.12 73 1997 - 2018
Kyrgyzstan 0.1 74 1997 - 2018
Mongolia 0.1 75 1997 - 2018
Tajikistan 0.1 76 2001 - 2018
Tr.&Tobago 0.08 77 1996 - 2018
Gambia 0.07 78 2008 - 2018
Kuwait 0.06 79 1997 - 2018
Iraq 0.04 80 2007 - 2018
Guatemala 0.03 81 2005 - 2018
Mauritania 0.01 82 2018 - 2018


Definition: Gross domestic expenditures on research and development (R&D), expressed as a percent of GDP. They include both capital and current expenditures in the four main sectors: Business enterprise, Government, Higher education and Private non-profit. R&D covers basic research, applied research, and experimental development.
4.94
4.53
3.31
3.28
3.17
3.13
3.03
2.83
2.77
2.76
2.22
2.19
2.16
2.14
2.07
2.04
1.95
1.93
1.70
1.56
1.53
1.40
1.39
1.35
1.28
1.24
1.21
1.21
1.18
1.16
1.15
1.04
0.98
0.97
0.94
0.92
0.86
0.84
0.76
0.72
0.65
0.64
0.60
0.60
0.57
0.55
0.51
0.50
0.49
0.47
0.42
0.38
0.37
0.36
0.35
0.31
0.28
0.28
0.26
0.25
0.23
0.23
0.22
0.21
0.20
0.19
0.19
0.18
0.16
0.15
0.13
0.13
0.12
0.10
0.10
0.10
0.08
0.07
0.06
0.04
0.03
0.01
0
1.2
2.5
3.7
4.94
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