Kazakhstan: Research and development expenditure, percent of GDP
For that indicator, The United Nations provides data for Kazakhstan from 1997 to 2017. The average value for Kazakhstan during that period was 0.2 percent with a minimum of 0.13 percent in 2017 and a maximum of 0.29 percent in 1997.
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The expenditure for R&D on the charts includes both private and public spending on research and development.
Definition: Gross domestic expenditures on research and development (R&D), expressed as a percent of GDP. They include both capital and current expenditures in the four main sectors: Business enterprise, Government, Higher education and Private non-profit. R&D covers basic research, applied research, and experimental development.