Turkey: Research and development expenditure

* indicates monthly or quarterly data series
 Turkey

Research and development expenditure, percent of GDP

 Latest value 1.4
 Year 2021
 Measure percent
 Data availability 1996 - 2021
 Average 0.77
 Min - Max 0.36 - 1.4
 Source The United Nations
For that indicator, we provide data for Turkey from 1996 to 2021. The average value for Turkey during that period was 0.77 percent with a minimum of 0.36 percent in 1998 and a maximum of 1.4 percent in 2021. The latest value from 2021 is 1.4 percent. For comparison, the world average in 2021 based on 69 countries is 1.36 percent. See the global rankings for that indicator or use the country comparator to compare trends over time.
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* indicates monthly or quarterly data series


Recent values chart
Turkey - Research and development expenditure - recent values

Historical chart
Turkey - Research and development expenditure - historical chart - 1996-2021




The expenditure for R&D on the charts includes both private and public spending on research and development.
Definition: Gross domestic expenditures on research and development (R&D), expressed as a percent of GDP. They include both capital and current expenditures in the four main sectors: Business enterprise, Government, Higher education and Private non-profit. R&D covers basic research, applied research, and experimental development.


 Related indicators Latest value Reference Measure
 Innovation index 38.10 2022 points
 Research and development expenditure 1.40 2021 percent
 Information technology exports 0.88 2021 percent
 High tech exports 6,814.96 2022 million U.S. dollars
 High tech exports, percent of manufactured exports 3.62 2022 percent
 Patent applications by residents 8,234 2021 patent applications
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