Nepal: Government debt

* indicates monthly or quarterly data series
 Nepal

Government debt as percent of GDP

 Latest value 42.90
 Year 2023
 Measure percent
 Data availability 1975 - 2023
 Average 39.33
 Min - Max 5.69 - 66.76
 Source Nepal Rastra Bank
For that indicator, we provide data for Nepal from 1975 to 2023. The average value for Nepal during that period was 39.33 percent with a minimum of 5.69 percent in 1975 and a maximum of 66.76 percent in 1991. The latest value from 2023 is 42.9 percent. For comparison, the world average in 2023 based on 78 countries is 66.89 percent. See the global rankings for that indicator or use the country comparator to compare trends over time.
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* indicates monthly or quarterly data series


Recent values chart
Nepal - Government debt - Recent values chart

Historical chart
Nepal - Government debt - historical chart - 1975-2023




The government debt in Nepal and other countries is calculated as the total amount owed by the national government to domestic and international lenders. It is reported as percent of GDP so that we can evaluate its magnitude relative to the size of the economy.

Government debt of about 60 percent or less of GDP is not considered a problem. The government can make payments without strain and even has some room to borrow more. If debt levels reach 80-90 percent that may have negative effects on the economy. Debt above 120 percent of GDP is quite detrimental.
Definition: Debt is the entire stock of direct government fixed-term contractual obligations to others outstanding on a particular date. It includes domestic and foreign liabilities such as currency and money deposits, securities other than shares, and loans. It is the gross amount of government liabilities reduced by the amount of equity and financial derivatives held by the government. Because debt is a stock rather than a flow, it is measured as of a given date, usually the last day of the fiscal year.

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 Related indicators Latest value Reference Measure
 Government spending, percent of GDP 8.49 2022 percent
 Government spending, in dollars 3.46 2022 billion U.S. dollars
 Fiscal balance, percent of GDP -4.30 2023 percent
 Government debt 42.90 2023 percent
 Tax revenue 17.49 2021 percent
 Commercial tax rate 41.80 2019 percent
 Tax preparation time 377 2019 hours
 Number of taxes 46 2019 taxes
 Taxes on goods and services 39.27 2021 percent
 Taxes on international trade 19.87 2021 percent
 Income and profits taxes 24.59 2021 percent
 Foreign aid 1,567.43 2021 million U.S. dollars
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