* indicates monthly or quarterly data series

Research and development expenditure, percent of GDP, 2021:

The average for 2021 based on 69 countries was 1.36 percent. The highest value was in Israel: 5.56 percent and the lowest value was in Iraq: 0.04 percent. The indicator is available from 1996 to 2021. Below is a chart for all countries where data are available.

Measure: percent; Source: The United Nations
Select indicator
* indicates monthly or quarterly data series


Countries Research and development expenditure, 2021 Global rank Available data
Israel 5.56 1 1996 - 2021
South Korea 4.93 2 1996 - 2021
USA 3.46 3 1996 - 2021
Belgium 3.43 4 1996 - 2021
Sweden 3.42 5 1997 - 2021
Switzerland 3.36 6 1996 - 2021
Japan 3.3 7 1996 - 2021
Austria 3.26 8 1996 - 2021
Germany 3.14 9 1996 - 2021
Finland 2.99 10 1996 - 2021
UK 2.91 11 1996 - 2021
Denmark 2.81 12 1996 - 2021
Iceland 2.81 13 1997 - 2021
China 2.43 14 1996 - 2021
Netherlands 2.31 15 1996 - 2021
France 2.22 16 1996 - 2021
Slovenia 2.13 17 1996 - 2021
Czechia 2 18 1996 - 2021
Norway 1.94 19 1997 - 2021
Estonia 1.75 20 1998 - 2021
Canada 1.7 21 1996 - 2021
Portugal 1.68 22 1996 - 2021
Hungary 1.64 23 1996 - 2021
UA Emirates 1.5 24 2011 - 2021
Greece 1.46 25 1997 - 2021
Italy 1.45 26 1996 - 2021
New Zealand 1.45 27 1997 - 2021
Poland 1.44 28 1996 - 2021
Spain 1.43 29 1996 - 2021
Turkey 1.4 30 1996 - 2021
Croatia 1.24 31 1999 - 2021
Ireland 1.13 32 1996 - 2021
Lithuania 1.11 33 1996 - 2021
Luxembourg 1.04 34 2000 - 2021
Serbia 0.99 35 1997 - 2021
Hong Kong 0.97 36 1998 - 2021
Slovakia 0.92 37 1996 - 2021
Egypt 0.91 38 1996 - 2021
Cyprus 0.83 39 1998 - 2021
Bulgaria 0.77 40 1996 - 2021
Latvia 0.74 41 1996 - 2021
Qatar 0.68 42 2012 - 2021
Malta 0.67 43 2002 - 2021
Argentina 0.52 44 1996 - 2021
Romania 0.47 45 1996 - 2021
Belarus 0.46 46 1996 - 2021
Saudi Arabia 0.45 47 2003 - 2021
Vietnam 0.43 48 2002 - 2021
Macao 0.38 49 2001 - 2021
North Macedonia 0.38 50 1997 - 2021
Mauritius 0.37 51 1997 - 2021
Oman 0.29 52 2011 - 2021
Ukraine 0.29 53 1997 - 2021
Costa Rica 0.28 54 1996 - 2021
Burkina Faso 0.25 55 1996 - 2021
Georgia 0.25 56 1996 - 2021
Moldova 0.23 57 1996 - 2021
Armenia 0.21 58 1997 - 2021
Azerbaijan 0.21 59 1996 - 2021
Bosnia & Herz. 0.19 60 2003 - 2021
Mali 0.17 61 2007 - 2021
Pakistan 0.16 62 1997 - 2021
Panama 0.16 63 1996 - 2021
Burma 0.15 64 1997 - 2021
Kazakhstan 0.13 65 1997 - 2021
Uzbekistan 0.13 66 2000 - 2021
Kyrgyzstan 0.08 67 1997 - 2021
Guatemala 0.06 68 2005 - 2021
Iraq 0.04 69 2007 - 2021



Definition: Gross domestic expenditures on research and development (R&D), expressed as a percent of GDP. They include both capital and current expenditures in the four main sectors: Business enterprise, Government, Higher education and Private non-profit. R&D covers basic research, applied research, and experimental development.

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5.56
4.93
3.46
3.43
3.42
3.36
3.30
3.26
3.14
2.99
2.91
2.81
2.81
2.43
2.31
2.22
2.13
2.00
1.94
1.75
1.70
1.68
1.64
1.50
1.46
1.45
1.45
1.44
1.43
1.40
1.24
1.13
1.11
1.04
0.99
0.97
0.92
0.91
0.83
0.77
0.74
0.68
0.67
0.52
0.47
0.46
0.45
0.43
0.38
0.38
0.37
0.29
0.29
0.28
0.25
0.25
0.23
0.21
0.21
0.19
0.17
0.16
0.16
0.15
0.13
0.13
0.08
0.06
0.04
0
1.4
2.8
4.2
5.56
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