* indicates monthly or quarterly data series

Research and development expenditure, percent of GDP, 2020 - Country rankings:

The average for 2020 based on 68 countries was 1.32 percent.The highest value was in Israel: 5.44 percent and the lowest value was in Iraq: 0.04 percent. The indicator is available from 1996 to 2021. Below is a chart for all countries where data are available.

Measure: percent; Source: The United Nations
Select indicator
* indicates monthly or quarterly data series


Countries Research and development expenditure, 2020 Global rank Available data
Israel 5.44 1 1996 - 2020
South Korea 4.81 2 1996 - 2020
Sweden 3.53 3 1997 - 2020
Belgium 3.48 4 1996 - 2020
USA 3.45 5 1996 - 2020
Japan 3.26 6 1996 - 2020
Austria 3.2 7 1996 - 2020
Germany 3.14 8 1996 - 2020
Denmark 2.96 9 1996 - 2020
Finland 2.94 10 1996 - 2020
Iceland 2.47 11 1997 - 2020
China 2.4 12 1996 - 2020
Euro area 2.36 13 1996 - 2020
France 2.35 14 1996 - 2020
Netherlands 2.29 15 1996 - 2020
Norway 2.28 16 1997 - 2020
Slovenia 2.15 17 1996 - 2020
Czechia 1.99 18 1996 - 2020
Estonia 1.79 19 1998 - 2020
Canada 1.7 20 1996 - 2020
Portugal 1.62 21 1996 - 2020
Hungary 1.61 22 1996 - 2020
Italy 1.53 23 1996 - 2020
Greece 1.5 24 1997 - 2020
UA Emirates 1.45 25 2011 - 2020
Spain 1.41 26 1996 - 2020
Poland 1.39 27 1996 - 2020
Croatia 1.25 28 1999 - 2020
Ireland 1.23 29 1996 - 2020
Lithuania 1.16 30 1996 - 2020
Luxembourg 1.13 31 2000 - 2020
Russia 1.1 32 1996 - 2020
Turkey 1.09 33 1996 - 2020
Hong Kong 0.99 34 1998 - 2020
Egypt 0.96 35 1996 - 2020
Serbia 0.91 36 1997 - 2020
Slovakia 0.91 37 1996 - 2020
Bulgaria 0.85 38 1996 - 2020
Cyprus 0.82 39 1998 - 2020
Latvia 0.71 40 1996 - 2020
Malta 0.68 41 2002 - 2020
Belarus 0.55 42 1996 - 2020
Saudi Arabia 0.52 43 2003 - 2020
Romania 0.47 44 1996 - 2020
Macao 0.45 45 2001 - 2020
Mauritius 0.42 46 1997 - 2020
Ukraine 0.41 47 1997 - 2020
North Macedonia 0.38 48 1997 - 2020
Oman 0.37 49 2011 - 2020
Georgia 0.3 50 1996 - 2020
Mexico 0.3 51 1996 - 2020
Colombia 0.29 52 1996 - 2020
Indonesia 0.28 53 2000 - 2020
Burkina Faso 0.25 54 1996 - 2020
Bermuda 0.23 55 1997 - 2020
Moldova 0.23 56 1996 - 2020
Azerbaijan 0.22 57 1996 - 2020
Armenia 0.21 58 1997 - 2020
Bosnia & Herz. 0.21 59 2003 - 2020
Kuwait 0.19 60 1997 - 2020
Peru 0.17 61 1997 - 2020
Burma 0.15 62 1997 - 2020
Uzbekistan 0.14 63 2000 - 2020
Kazakhstan 0.13 64 1997 - 2021
Mongolia 0.13 65 1997 - 2020
Kyrgyzstan 0.09 66 1997 - 2020
Tajikistan 0.09 67 2001 - 2020
Iraq 0.04 68 2007 - 2020


Economic outlook

Definition: Gross domestic expenditures on research and development (R&D), expressed as a percent of GDP. They include both capital and current expenditures in the four main sectors: Business enterprise, Government, Higher education and Private non-profit. R&D covers basic research, applied research, and experimental development.
5.44
4.81
3.53
3.48
3.45
3.26
3.20
3.14
2.96
2.94
2.47
2.40
2.36
2.35
2.29
2.28
2.15
1.99
1.79
1.70
1.62
1.61
1.53
1.50
1.45
1.41
1.39
1.25
1.23
1.16
1.13
1.10
1.09
0.99
0.96
0.91
0.91
0.85
0.82
0.71
0.68
0.55
0.52
0.47
0.45
0.42
0.41
0.38
0.37
0.30
0.30
0.29
0.28
0.25
0.23
0.23
0.22
0.21
0.21
0.19
0.17
0.15
0.14
0.13
0.13
0.09
0.09
0.04
0
1.4
2.7
4.1
5.44
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