* indicates monthly or quarterly data series

Labor force, million people, 2022:

The average for 2022 based on 179 countries was 19.79 million people. The highest value was in China: 781.81 million people and the lowest value was in Tonga: 0.04 million people. The indicator is available from 1991 to 2023. Below is a chart for all countries where data are available.

Measure: million people; Source: The World Bank
Select indicator
* indicates monthly or quarterly data series


Countries Labor force, 2022 Global rank Available data
China 781.81 1 1991 - 2023
India 554.15 2 1991 - 2023
USA 168.19 3 1991 - 2023
Indonesia 138.1 4 1991 - 2023
Brazil 108.75 5 1991 - 2023
Pakistan 78.86 6 1991 - 2023
Bangladesh 73.86 7 1991 - 2023
Russia 73.8 8 1991 - 2023
Nigeria 73.39 9 1991 - 2023
Japan 69.11 10 1991 - 2023
Ethiopia 59.75 11 1991 - 2023
Mexico 58.72 12 1991 - 2023
Vietnam 55.69 13 1991 - 2023
Philippines 47.87 14 1991 - 2023
Germany 44.2 15 1991 - 2023
Thailand 40.91 16 1991 - 2023
DR Congo 34.81 17 1991 - 2023
Turkey 34.63 18 1991 - 2023
UK 34.38 19 1991 - 2023
Egypt 32.61 20 1991 - 2023
France 31.62 21 1991 - 2023
Tanzania 30.1 22 1991 - 2023
South Korea 29.31 23 1991 - 2023
Iran 28.64 24 1991 - 2023
Colombia 25.77 25 1991 - 2023
Italy 25.34 26 1991 - 2023
Kenya 24.75 27 1991 - 2023
South Africa 24.37 28 1991 - 2023
Spain 23.69 29 1991 - 2023
Burma 22.53 30 1991 - 2023
Argentina 21.51 31 1991 - 2023
Canada 21.36 32 1991 - 2023
Poland 18.3 33 1991 - 2023
Peru 18.27 34 1991 - 2023
Uganda 18.24 35 1991 - 2023
Malaysia 17.13 36 1991 - 2023
Saudi Arabia 16.62 37 1991 - 2023
North Korea 15.77 38 1991 - 2023
Madagascar 15.36 39 1991 - 2023
Angola 14.75 40 1991 - 2023
Mozambique 14.69 41 1991 - 2023
Ghana 14.55 42 1991 - 2023
Australia 14.07 43 1991 - 2023
Uzbekistan 13.97 44 1991 - 2023
Sudan 13.45 45 1991 - 2023
Algeria 13.02 46 1991 - 2023
Morocco 12.18 47 1991 - 2023
Cameroon 11.59 48 1991 - 2023
Iraq 11.36 49 1991 - 2023
Venezuela 10.97 50 1991 - 2023
Ivory Coast 10.61 51 1991 - 2023
Niger 9.83 52 1991 - 2023
Netherlands 9.79 53 1991 - 2023
Chile 9.63 54 1991 - 2023
Kazakhstan 9.48 55 1991 - 2023
Cambodia 9.06 56 1991 - 2023
Ecuador 8.81 57 1991 - 2023
Afghanistan 8.8 58 1991 - 2023
Sri Lanka 8.77 59 1991 - 2023
Nepal 8.74 60 1991 - 2023
Burkina Faso 8.33 61 1991 - 2023
Romania 8.3 62 1991 - 2023
Malawi 8.07 63 1991 - 2023
Mali 7.96 64 1991 - 2023
Guatemala 7.07 65 1991 - 2023
Zambia 6.83 66 1991 - 2023
Yemen 6.66 67 1991 - 2023
UA Emirates 6.59 68 1991 - 2023
Zimbabwe 6.37 69 1991 - 2023
Bolivia 5.91 70 1991 - 2023
Syria 5.82 71 1991 - 2023
Sweden 5.72 72 1991 - 2023
Chad 5.6 73 1991 - 2023
Burundi 5.51 74 1991 - 2023
Azerbaijan 5.43 75 1991 - 2023
Belgium 5.37 76 1991 - 2023
Czechia 5.37 77 1991 - 2023
Portugal 5.3 78 1991 - 2023
Domin. Rep. 5.17 79 1991 - 2023
Haiti 5.15 80 1991 - 2023
Senegal 5.12 81 1991 - 2023
Rwanda 5.1 82 1991 - 2023
Belarus 4.99 83 1991 - 2023
Hungary 4.98 84 1991 - 2023
Switzerland 4.97 85 1991 - 2023
Benin 4.8 86 1991 - 2023
Austria 4.76 87 1991 - 2023
Greece 4.65 88 1991 - 2023
Honduras 4.56 89 1991 - 2023
Israel 4.45 90 1991 - 2023
Tunisia 4.36 91 1991 - 2023
Guinea 4.27 92 1991 - 2023
Hong Kong 3.76 93 1991 - 2023
Singapore 3.54 94 1991 - 2023
Paraguay 3.4 95 1991 - 2023
Serbia 3.37 96 1991 - 2023
Nicaragua 3.19 97 1991 - 2023
Papua N.G. 3.17 98 1991 - 2023
Somalia 3.16 99 1991 - 2023
Bulgaria 3.15 100 1991 - 2023
Denmark 3.14 101 1991 - 2023
Laos 3.11 102 1991 - 2023
Togo 3.07 103 1991 - 2023
Jordan 3.01 104 1991 - 2023
Kyrgyzstan 3 105 1991 - 2023
Norway 2.98 106 1991 - 2023
New Zealand 2.97 107 1991 - 2023
Finland 2.85 108 1991 - 2023
El Salvador 2.84 109 1991 - 2023
Sierra Leone 2.83 110 1991 - 2023
Slovakia 2.81 111 1991 - 2023
Ireland 2.67 112 1991 - 2023
Tajikistan 2.61 113 1991 - 2023
Costa Rica 2.54 114 1991 - 2023
Kuwait 2.42 115 1991 - 2023
Liberia 2.42 116 1991 - 2023
R. of Congo 2.38 117 1991 - 2023
Libya 2.33 118 1991 - 2023
Oman 2.26 119 1991 - 2023
Turkmenistan 2.12 120 1991 - 2023
Panama 2.05 121 1991 - 2023
C.A. Republic 2.04 122 1991 - 2023
Qatar 2.01 123 1991 - 2023
Georgia 1.84 124 1991 - 2023
Lebanon 1.81 125 1991 - 2023
Eritrea 1.75 126 1991 - 2023
Uruguay 1.75 127 1991 - 2023
Croatia 1.73 128 1991 - 2023
Jamaica 1.52 129 1991 - 2023
Lithuania 1.49 130 1991 - 2023
Moldova 1.49 131 1991 - 2023
Albania 1.4 132 1991 - 2023
Mongolia 1.39 133 1991 - 2023
Palestine 1.39 134 1991 - 2022
Bosnia & Herz. 1.38 135 1991 - 2023
Armenia 1.37 136 1991 - 2023
Puerto Rico 1.16 137 1991 - 2023
Botswana 1.15 138 1991 - 2023
Mauritania 1.13 139 1991 - 2023
Slovenia 1.06 140 1991 - 2023
Lesotho 0.99 141 1991 - 2023
Latvia 0.97 142 1991 - 2023
Namibia 0.97 143 1991 - 2023
Gambia 0.94 144 1991 - 2023
North Macedonia 0.92 145 1991 - 2023
Bahrain 0.84 146 1991 - 2023
Gabon 0.74 147 1991 - 2023
Estonia 0.73 148 1991 - 2023
G.-Bissau 0.71 149 1991 - 2023
Cyprus 0.68 150 1991 - 2023
Tr.&Tobago 0.68 151 1991 - 2023
Mauritius 0.58 152 1991 - 2023
Eq. Guinea 0.57 153 1991 - 2023
Bhutan 0.43 154 1991 - 2023
Macao 0.4 155 1991 - 2023
Swaziland 0.4 156 1991 - 2023
Fiji 0.38 157 1991 - 2023
Solomon Isl. 0.37 158 1991 - 2023
Luxembourg 0.34 159 1991 - 2023
Guyana 0.29 160 1991 - 2023
Malta 0.29 161 1991 - 2023
Montenegro 0.28 162 1991 - 2023
Maldives 0.26 163 1991 - 2023
Cape Verde 0.25 164 1991 - 2023
Djibouti 0.25 165 1991 - 2023
Suriname 0.25 166 1991 - 2023
Bahamas 0.24 167 1991 - 2023
Brunei 0.23 168 1991 - 2023
Comoros 0.23 169 1991 - 2023
Iceland 0.23 170 1991 - 2023
Belize 0.19 171 1991 - 2023
Barbados 0.15 172 1991 - 2023
Vanuatu 0.14 173 1991 - 2023
N. Caledonia 0.12 174 1991 - 2023
Saint Lucia 0.1 175 1991 - 2023
Samoa 0.08 176 1991 - 2023
S.T.&Principe 0.07 177 1991 - 2023
St. Vincent & ... 0.05 178 1991 - 2023
Tonga 0.04 179 1991 - 2023



Definition: Labor force comprises people ages 15 and older who supply labor for the production of goods and services during a specified period. It includes people who are currently employed and people who are unemployed but seeking work as well as first-time job-seekers. Not everyone who works is included, however. Unpaid workers, family workers, and students are often omitted, and some countries do not count members of the armed forces. Labor force size tends to vary during the year as seasonal workers enter and leave.
What makes up the labor force?

The labor force constitutes the proportion of a country’s pool of male and female workers aged 15 years and above who are employed and those currently unemployed but searching for a job. However, it does not include discouraged workers, retirees, and stay-at-home parents. This implies that the totality of the labor force in any country consists of employed and unemployed workers. While employed workers are the set of people who work either through paid or self-employment, the unemployed category consists of those without work, or those currently available for work, and those seeking employment.

Why does the labor force vary across countries?

Differences in the labor force across countries in the world are influenced by several factors. Traditionally, factors such as population size, statutory entry and retirement ages, official school-leaving age, number of working hours and working days, and labor market structure account for the disparity in the labor force of any country. Meanwhile, the existence of seasonal jobs also increases the rate of variation in the labor force from time to time. Countries with high seasonal employment opportunities may tend to have higher labor capacity at one time than other nations.

Furthermore, the economic conditions of countries also determine the number of employed and unemployed workers in the labor force. This is because during a recessionary era, industries tend to lay off workers, which raises the level of unemployment relative to the total population. Meanwhile, periods of an economic boom come with job opportunities that absorb workers.

In addition, geopolitical risks such as wars, conflicts, and terrorism also contribute to variations in the labor force among countries. For instance, countries with high geopolitical uncertainties are likely to have a small labor force since most employed workers may migrate to another nation for their safety, whereas those that are less confronted by geopolitical upheavals may have a large workforce.

If you are interested in global labor regulations and policies, you can visit the International Labour Organization page.



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