* indicates monthly or quarterly data series

GDP per capita, Purchasing Power Parity, 2022:

The average for 2022 based on 46 countries was 5078 U.S. dollars. The highest value was in the Seychelles: 25206 U.S. dollars and the lowest value was in Burundi: 708 U.S. dollars. The indicator is available from 1990 to 2022. Below is a chart for all countries where data are available.

Measure: U.S. dollars; Source: The World Bank
Select indicator
* indicates monthly or quarterly data series


Countries GDP per capita, PPP, 2022 Global rank Available data
Seychelles 25206 1 1990 - 2022
Mauritius 22841 2 1990 - 2022
Botswana 15519 3 1990 - 2022
Eq. Guinea 14918 4 1990 - 2022
Gabon 13940 5 1990 - 2022
South Africa 13479 6 1990 - 2022
Namibia 9763 7 1990 - 2022
Swaziland 9059 8 1990 - 2022
Cape Verde 7379 9 1990 - 2022
Angola 5906 10 1990 - 2022
Ivory Coast 5537 11 1990 - 2022
Ghana 5480 12 1990 - 2022
Mauritania 5330 13 1990 - 2022
Nigeria 4963 14 1990 - 2022
Kenya 4882 15 1990 - 2022
Cameroon 3724 16 1990 - 2022
R. of Congo 3670 17 1990 - 2022
Sudan 3571 18 1990 - 2022
Senegal 3565 19 1990 - 2022
S.T.&Principe 3439 20 2001 - 2022
Benin 3435 21 1990 - 2022
Zambia 3366 22 1990 - 2022
Comoros 3246 23 1990 - 2022
Guinea 2699 24 1990 - 2022
Tanzania 2624 25 1990 - 2022
Ethiopia 2381 26 1990 - 2022
Rwanda 2365 27 1990 - 2022
Uganda 2280 28 1990 - 2022
Lesotho 2240 29 1990 - 2022
Zimbabwe 2208 30 1990 - 2022
Togo 2203 31 1990 - 2022
Burkina Faso 2159 32 1990 - 2022
Mali 2133 33 1990 - 2022
Gambia 2114 34 1990 - 2022
G.-Bissau 1855 35 1990 - 2022
Sierra Leone 1635 36 1990 - 2022
Madagascar 1502 37 1990 - 2022
Malawi 1467 38 1990 - 2022
Liberia 1461 39 2000 - 2022
Somalia 1449 40 2013 - 2022
Chad 1413 41 1990 - 2022
Niger 1275 42 1990 - 2022
Mozambique 1251 43 1990 - 2022
DR Congo 1133 44 1990 - 2022
C.A. Republic 824 45 1990 - 2022
Burundi 708 46 1990 - 2022



Definition: GDP per capita based on purchasing power parity (PPP). PPP GDP is gross domestic product converted to international dollars using purchasing power parity rates. An international dollar has the same purchasing power over GDP as the U.S. dollar has in the United States. GDP at purchaser's prices is the sum of gross value added by all resident producers in the economy plus any product taxes and minus any subsidies not included in the value of the products. It is calculated without making deductions for depreciation of fabricated assets or for depletion and degradation of natural resources. Data are in constant 2011 international dollars.
Is the world income inequality getting smaller?

If poor countries grow faster than rich countries, over time they will catch up in terms of their level of income measured by GDP per capita in PPP terms. This process is called income convergence. Alternatively, incomes would diverge if the rich countries grow more rapidly than poor countries. If economic growth is the same everywhere, then the differences in income across countries would remain the same. There are two main reasons for why incomes across countries might converge over time.

Technology spillover. One reason is that innovations and technologies that are developed in the rich countries soon become available in the poor countries. That happens, for example, through foreign direct investment as companies from the rich countries bring new technologies to the poor countries. When the same technology is available everywhere, then incomes would also tend to become equal over time because technology is an important ingredient of economic development.

Based on that argument, incomes would converge faster if a poor country is ready to use the advanced technology. If it has an educated work force and stable political and economic conditions, the technological spillover is more likely to occur. Conversely, if its education system and institutions are not well developed, the new technology cannot be adopted. The income of the country will lag behind the income of countries with better education and institutions.

Diminishing returns. The second reason is that investments in the rich countries are less profitable than investments in the poor countries. Think of it as follows. If an accounting firm (in a rich country) has 10 computers, one more computer will make little difference. If an accounting firm (in a poor country) has no computers at all, then buying one computer would make a big difference. The investment in that first computer would pay off handsomely. Therefore, international investment would flow primarily from the rich countries to the poor countries where profits are greater. This inflow of investment will make poor countries richer.

However, returns could also be increasing, instead of diminishing. In the example above, if the firm has many computers and much experience using them, an additional computer will be put to good use. If it has only one computer, then it may not know what to do with it. In that version of the story, adding investments to already rich firms or countries is more profitable. Then, investment flows to them and makes them even richer. Incomes around the world diverge instead of converging.

What is the evidence? There is income convergence across countries that are already fairly affluent. For example, incomes have converged significantly in the European Union and other rich countries in North America and elsewhere. Looking more broadly, there is no evidence that the incomes of poor countries in Africa, Latin America and elsewhere have gained relative to the rich countries. In fact, when it comes to the poorest countries, there has even been some income divergence.

25206
22841
15519
14918
13940
13479
9763
9059
7379
5906
5537
5480
5330
4963
4882
3724
3670
3571
3565
3439
3435
3366
3246
2699
2624
2381
2365
2280
2240
2208
2203
2159
2133
2114
1855
1635
1502
1467
1461
1449
1413
1275
1251
1133
824
708
0
6301.5
12603
18904.5
25206
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