* indicates monthly or quarterly data series

GDP per capita, Purchasing Power Parity, 2022:

The average for 2022 based on 41 countries was 26702 U.S. dollars. The highest value was in Singapore: 108036 U.S. dollars and the lowest value was in Nepal: 4002 U.S. dollars. The indicator is available from 1990 to 2022. Below is a chart for all countries where data are available.

Measure: U.S. dollars; Source: The World Bank
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* indicates monthly or quarterly data series


Countries GDP per capita, PPP, 2022 Global rank Available data
Singapore 108036 1 1990 - 2022
Qatar 96558 2 2000 - 2022
UA Emirates 74918 3 1990 - 2022
Brunei 58670 4 1990 - 2022
Hong Kong 58479 5 1990 - 2022
Bahrain 51855 6 1990 - 2022
Macao 51840 7 1990 - 2022
Saudi Arabia 50188 8 1990 - 2022
Kuwait 49400 9 1992 - 2022
South Korea 45560 10 1990 - 2022
Israel 44393 11 1995 - 2022
Japan 41838 12 1990 - 2022
Oman 35337 13 1990 - 2022
Malaysia 28384 14 1990 - 2022
Kazakhstan 26093 15 1990 - 2022
Maldives 21271 16 1995 - 2022
China 18188 17 1990 - 2022
Thailand 17508 18 1990 - 2022
Georgia 17078 19 1990 - 2022
Armenia 16057 20 1990 - 2022
Iran 15461 21 1990 - 2022
Azerbaijan 15094 22 1990 - 2022
Turkmenistan 14740 23 1990 - 2022
Indonesia 12410 24 1990 - 2022
Sri Lanka 12200 25 1990 - 2022
Mongolia 12073 26 1990 - 2022
Vietnam 11397 27 1990 - 2022
Jordan 9491 28 1990 - 2022
Iraq 9199 29 1990 - 2022
Philippines 8582 30 1990 - 2022
Uzbekistan 8073 31 1990 - 2022
Laos 7948 32 1990 - 2022
India 7112 33 1990 - 2022
Bangladesh 6263 34 1990 - 2022
Palestine 5722 35 1994 - 2022
Pakistan 5377 36 1990 - 2022
Kyrgyzstan 5070 37 1990 - 2022
Cambodia 4534 38 1993 - 2022
Burma 4250 39 1990 - 2022
Tajikistan 4137 40 1990 - 2022
Nepal 4002 41 1990 - 2022



Definition: GDP per capita based on purchasing power parity (PPP). PPP GDP is gross domestic product converted to international dollars using purchasing power parity rates. An international dollar has the same purchasing power over GDP as the U.S. dollar has in the United States. GDP at purchaser's prices is the sum of gross value added by all resident producers in the economy plus any product taxes and minus any subsidies not included in the value of the products. It is calculated without making deductions for depreciation of fabricated assets or for depletion and degradation of natural resources. Data are in constant 2011 international dollars.
Is the world income inequality getting smaller?

If poor countries grow faster than rich countries, over time they will catch up in terms of their level of income measured by GDP per capita in PPP terms. This process is called income convergence. Alternatively, incomes would diverge if the rich countries grow more rapidly than poor countries. If economic growth is the same everywhere, then the differences in income across countries would remain the same. There are two main reasons for why incomes across countries might converge over time.

Technology spillover. One reason is that innovations and technologies that are developed in the rich countries soon become available in the poor countries. That happens, for example, through foreign direct investment as companies from the rich countries bring new technologies to the poor countries. When the same technology is available everywhere, then incomes would also tend to become equal over time because technology is an important ingredient of economic development.

Based on that argument, incomes would converge faster if a poor country is ready to use the advanced technology. If it has an educated work force and stable political and economic conditions, the technological spillover is more likely to occur. Conversely, if its education system and institutions are not well developed, the new technology cannot be adopted. The income of the country will lag behind the income of countries with better education and institutions.

Diminishing returns. The second reason is that investments in the rich countries are less profitable than investments in the poor countries. Think of it as follows. If an accounting firm (in a rich country) has 10 computers, one more computer will make little difference. If an accounting firm (in a poor country) has no computers at all, then buying one computer would make a big difference. The investment in that first computer would pay off handsomely. Therefore, international investment would flow primarily from the rich countries to the poor countries where profits are greater. This inflow of investment will make poor countries richer.

However, returns could also be increasing, instead of diminishing. In the example above, if the firm has many computers and much experience using them, an additional computer will be put to good use. If it has only one computer, then it may not know what to do with it. In that version of the story, adding investments to already rich firms or countries is more profitable. Then, investment flows to them and makes them even richer. Incomes around the world diverge instead of converging.

What is the evidence? There is income convergence across countries that are already fairly affluent. For example, incomes have converged significantly in the European Union and other rich countries in North America and elsewhere. Looking more broadly, there is no evidence that the incomes of poor countries in Africa, Latin America and elsewhere have gained relative to the rich countries. In fact, when it comes to the poorest countries, there has even been some income divergence.

108036
96558
74918
58670
58479
51855
51840
50188
49400
45560
44393
41838
35337
28384
26093
21271
18188
17508
17078
16057
15461
15094
14740
12410
12200
12073
11397
9491
9199
8582
8073
7948
7112
6263
5722
5377
5070
4534
4250
4137
4002
0
27009
54018
81027
108036
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