Turkmenistan Economic Indicators

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GDP and economic growth
measure
Frequency
Latest value
Last update
Time coverage
percent
annual
2017
6.50
1988  -  2017
Annual percentage growth rate of GDP at market prices based on constant local currency. Aggregates are based on constant 2010 U.S. dollars. GDP is the sum of gross value added by all resident producers in the economy plus any product taxes and minus any subsidies not included in the value of the products. It is calculated without making deductions for depreciation of fabricated assets or for depletion and degradation of natural resources.
billion USD
annual
2018
44.7
1987  -  2018
GDP at purchaser's prices is the sum of gross value added by all resident producers in the economy plus any product taxes and minus any subsidies not included in the value of the products. It is calculated without making deductions for depreciation of fabricated assets or for depletion and degradation of natural resources. Data are in constant 2010 U.S. dollars. Dollar figures for GDP are converted from domestic currencies using 2010 official exchange rates. For a few countries where the official exchange rate does not reflect the rate effectively applied to actual foreign exchange transactions, an alternative conversion factor is used.
billion USD
annual
2017
37.93
1987  -  2017
GDP at purchaser's prices is the sum of gross value added by all resident producers in the economy plus any product taxes and minus any subsidies not included in the value of the products. It is calculated without making deductions for depreciation of fabricated assets or for depletion and degradation of natural resources. Data are in current U.S. dollars. Dollar figures for GDP are converted from domestic currencies using single year official exchange rates. For a few countries where the official exchange rate does not reflect the rate effectively applied to actual foreign exchange transactions, an alternative conversion factor is used.
USD
annual
2017
6586.63
1987  -  2017
GDP per capita is gross domestic product divided by midyear population. GDP is the sum of gross value added by all resident producers in the economy plus any product taxes and minus any subsidies not included in the value of the products. It is calculated without making deductions for depreciation of fabricated assets or for depletion and degradation of natural resources. Data are in current U.S. dollars.
USD
annual
2017
16389.02
1990  -  2017
GDP per capita based on purchasing power parity (PPP). PPP GDP is gross domestic product converted to international dollars using purchasing power parity rates. An international dollar has the same purchasing power over GDP as the U.S. dollar has in the United States. GDP at purchaser's prices is the sum of gross value added by all resident producers in the economy plus any product taxes and minus any subsidies not included in the value of the products. It is calculated without making deductions for depreciation of fabricated assets or for depletion and degradation of natural resources. Data are in constant 2011 international dollars.
USD
annual
2018
7647.94
1987  -  2018
GDP per capita is gross domestic product divided by midyear population. GDP is the sum of gross value added by all resident producers in the economy plus any product taxes and minus any subsidies not included in the value of the products. It is calculated without making deductions for depreciation of fabricated assets or for depletion and degradation of natural resources. Data are in constant 2010 U.S. dollars.
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GDP components and structure
measure
Frequency
Latest value
Last update
Time coverage
percent
annual
2012
47.20
1987  -  2012
Gross capital formation (formerly gross domestic investment) consists of outlays on additions to the fixed assets of the economy plus net changes in the level of inventories. Fixed assets include land improvements (fences, ditches, drains, and so on); plant, machinery, and equipment purchases; and the construction of roads, railways, and the like, including schools, offices, hospitals, private residential dwellings, and commercial and industrial buildings. Inventories are stocks of goods held by firms to meet temporary or unexpected fluctuations in production or sales, and "work in progress." According to the 1993 SNA, net acquisitions of valuables are also considered capital formation.
billion USD
annual
2012
16.60
1987  -  2012
Gross capital formation (formerly gross domestic investment) consists of outlays on additions to the fixed assets of the economy plus net changes in the level of inventories. Fixed assets include land improvements (fences, ditches, drains, and so on); plant, machinery, and equipment purchases; and the construction of roads, railways, and the like, including schools, offices, hospitals, private residential dwellings, and commercial and industrial buildings. Inventories are stocks of goods held by firms to meet temporary or unexpected fluctuations in production or sales, and "work in progress." According to the 1993 SNA, net acquisitions of valuables are also considered capital formation. Data are in current U.S. dollars.
percent
annual
2012
15.08
1987  -  2012
Household final consumption expenditure (formerly private consumption) is the market value of all goods and services, including durable products (such as cars, washing machines, and home computers), purchased by households. It excludes purchases of dwellings but includes imputed rent for owner-occupied dwellings. It also includes payments and fees to governments to obtain permits and licenses. Here, household consumption expenditure includes the expenditures of nonprofit institutions serving households, even when reported separately by the country. This item also includes any statistical discrepancy in the use of resources relative to the supply of resources.
billion USD
annual
2012
5.30
1987  -  2012
Household final consumption expenditure (formerly private consumption) is the market value of all goods and services, including durable products (such as cars, washing machines, and home computers), purchased by households. It excludes purchases of dwellings but includes imputed rent for owner-occupied dwellings. It also includes payments and fees to governments to obtain permits and licenses. Here, household consumption expenditure includes the expenditures of nonprofit institutions serving households, even when reported separately by the country. Data are in current U.S. dollars.
percent
annual
2015
56.97
1987  -  2015
Industry corresponds to ISIC divisions 10-45 and includes manufacturing (ISIC divisions 15-37). It comprises value added in mining, manufacturing (also reported as a separate subgroup), construction, electricity, water, and gas. Value added is the net output of a sector after adding up all outputs and subtracting intermediate inputs. It is calculated without making deductions for depreciation of fabricated assets or depletion and degradation of natural resources. The origin of value added is determined by the International Standard Industrial Classification (ISIC), revision 3 or 4.
percent
annual
2004
20.46
1993  -  2004
Manufacturing refers to industries belonging to ISIC divisions 15-37. Value added is the net output of a sector after adding up all outputs and subtracting intermediate inputs. It is calculated without making deductions for depreciation of fabricated assets or depletion and degradation of natural resources. The origin of value added is determined by the International Standard Industrial Classification (ISIC), revision 3. Note: For VAB countries, gross value added at factor cost is used as the denominator.
percent
annual
2010
28.14
1987  -  2010
Services correspond to ISIC divisions 50-99 and they include value added in wholesale and retail trade (including hotels and restaurants), transport, and government, financial, professional, and personal services such as education, health care, and real estate services. Also included are imputed bank service charges, import duties, and any statistical discrepancies noted by national compilers as well as discrepancies arising from rescaling. Value added is the net output of a sector after adding up all outputs and subtracting intermediate inputs. It is calculated without making deductions for depreciation of fabricated assets or depletion and degradation of natural resources. The industrial origin of value added is determined by the International Standard Industrial Classification (ISIC), revision 3 or 4.
billion USD
annual
2015
20.39
1987  -  2015
Industry corresponds to ISIC divisions 10-45 and includes manufacturing (ISIC divisions 15-37). It comprises value added in mining, manufacturing (also reported as a separate subgroup), construction, electricity, water, and gas. Value added is the net output of a sector after adding up all outputs and subtracting intermediate inputs. It is calculated without making deductions for depreciation of fabricated assets or depletion and degradation of natural resources. The origin of value added is determined by the International Standard Industrial Classification (ISIC), revision 3. Data are in current U.S. dollars.
billion USD
annual
2004
1.40
1993  -  2004
Manufacturing refers to industries belonging to ISIC divisions 15-37. Value added is the net output of a sector after adding up all outputs and subtracting intermediate inputs. It is calculated without making deductions for depreciation of fabricated assets or depletion and degradation of natural resources. The origin of value added is determined by the International Standard Industrial Classification (ISIC), revision 3. Data are in current U.S. dollars.
billion USD
annual
2010
6.36
1987  -  2010
Services correspond to ISIC divisions 50-99. They include value added in wholesale and retail trade (including hotels and restaurants), transport, and government, financial, professional, and personal services such as education, health care, and real estate services. Also included are imputed bank service charges, import duties, and any statistical discrepancies noted by national compilers as well as discrepancies arising from rescaling. Value added is the net output of a sector after adding up all outputs and subtracting intermediate inputs. It is calculated without making deductions for depreciation of fabricated assets or depletion and degradation of natural resources. The industrial origin of value added is determined by the International Standard Industrial Classification (ISIC), revision 3 or 4. Data are in constant 2010 U.S. dollars.
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Money, credit and inflation
measure
Frequency
Latest value
Last update
Time coverage
Local Currency Units per USD
monthly
Jul/2019
3.5033
10/2013 - 7/2019
The amount of local currency units that can be exchanged for one USD. An increase (decrease) means USD appreciation (depreciation).
local currency units per dollar
annual
2001
5200.00
1994  -  2001
Official exchange rate refers to the exchange rate determined by national authorities or to the rate determined in the legally sanctioned exchange market. It is calculated as an annual average based on monthly averages (local currency units relative to the U.S. dollar).
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Labor markets, employment, unemployment
measure
Frequency
Latest value
Last update
Time coverage
million people
annual
2018
2.64
1990  -  2018
Labor force comprises people ages 15 and older who supply labor for the production of goods and services during a specified period. It includes people who are currently employed and people who are unemployed but seeking work as well as first-time job-seekers. Not everyone who works is included, however. Unpaid workers, family workers, and students are often omitted, and some countries do not count members of the armed forces. Labor force size tends to vary during the year as seasonal workers enter and leave.
percent
annual
2018
3.78
1991  -  2018
Unemployment refers to the share of the labor force that is without work but available for and seeking employment.
percent
annual
2018
2.11
1991  -  2018
Unemployment refers to the share of the labor force that is without work but available for and seeking employment.
percent
annual
2018
4.97
1991  -  2018
Unemployment refers to the share of the labor force that is without work but available for and seeking employment.
percent
annual
2018
7.37
1991  -  2018
Youth unemployment refers to the share of the labor force ages 15-24 without work but available for and seeking employment.
percent
annual
2018
65.14
1990  -  2018
Labor force participation rate is the proportion of the population ages 15 and older that is economically active: all people who supply labor for the production of goods and services during a specified period.
percent
annual
2018
41.66
1990  -  2018
Female labor force as a percentage of the total show the extent to which women are active in the labor force. Labor force comprises people ages 15 and older who supply labor for the production of goods and services during a specified period.
percent
annual
2018
52.79
1990  -  2018
Labor force participation rate is the proportion of the population ages 15 and older that is economically active: all people who supply labor for the production of goods and services during a specified period.
percent
annual
2018
78.21
1990  -  2018
Labor force participation rate is the proportion of the population ages 15 and older that is economically active: all people who supply labor for the production of goods and services during a specified period.
percent
annual
2018
54.44
1960  -  2018
Age dependency ratio is the ratio of dependents--people younger than 15 or older than 64--to the working-age population--those ages 15-64. Data are shown as the proportion of dependents per 100 working-age population.
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International trade and investment
measure
Frequency
Latest value
Last update
Time coverage
percent
annual
2017
138.82
2000  -  2017
Net barter terms of trade index is calculated as the percentage ratio of the export unit value indexes to the import unit value indexes, measured relative to the base year 2000. Unit value indexes are based on data reported by countries that demonstrate consistency under UNCTAD quality controls, supplemented by UNCTAD's estimates using the previous year’s trade values at the Standard International Trade Classification three-digit level as weights. To improve data coverage, especially for the latest periods, UNCTAD constructs a set of average prices indexes at the three-digit product classification of the Standard International Trade Classification revision 3 using UNCTAD’s Commodity Price Statistics, interna­tional and national sources, and UNCTAD secretariat estimates and calculates unit value indexes at the country level using the current year's trade values as weights.
percent
annual
2017
53.58
1991  -  2017
Exports plus imports as percent of GDP.
percent
annual
2018
22.67
1991  -  2018
Exports of goods and services represent the value of all goods and other market services provided to the rest of the world. They include the value of merchandise, freight, insurance, transport, travel, royalties, license fees, and other services, such as communication, construction, financial, information, business, personal, and government services. They exclude compensation of employees and investment income (formerly called factor services) and transfer payments.
billion USD
annual
2017
8.52
1991  -  2017
Exports of goods and services represent the value of all goods and other market services provided to the rest of the world. They include the value of merchandise, freight, insurance, transport, travel, royalties, license fees, and other services, such as communication, construction, financial, information, business, personal, and government services. They exclude compensation of employees and investment income (formerly called factor services) and transfer payments. Data are in current U.S. dollars.
percent
annual
2006
42.54
1992  -  2006
Annual growth rate of exports of goods and services based on constant local currency. Aggregates are based on constant 2010 U.S. dollars. Exports of goods and services represent the value of all goods and other market services provided to the rest of the world. They include the value of merchandise, freight, insurance, transport, travel, royalties, license fees, and other services, such as communication, construction, financial, information, business, personal, and government services. They exclude compensation of employees and investment income (formerly called factor services) and transfer payments.
percent
annual
2018
12.50
1991  -  2018
Imports of goods and services represent the value of all goods and other market services received from the rest of the world. They include the value of merchandise, freight, insurance, transport, travel, royalties, license fees, and other services, such as communication, construction, financial, information, business, personal, and government services. They exclude compensation of employees and investment income (formerly called factor services) and transfer payments.
billion USD
annual
2017
11.80
1991  -  2017
Imports of goods and services represent the value of all goods and other market services received from the rest of the world. They include the value of merchandise, freight, insurance, transport, travel, royalties, license fees, and other services, such as communication, construction, financial, information, business, personal, and government services. They exclude compensation of employees and investment income (formerly called factor services) and transfer payments. Data are in current U.S. dollars.
percent
annual
2017
6.10
1993  -  2017
Foreign direct investment are the net inflows of investment to acquire a lasting management interest (10 percent or more of voting stock) in an enterprise operating in an economy other than that of the investor. It is the sum of equity capital, reinvestment of earnings, other long-term capital, and short-term capital as shown in the balance of payments. This series shows net inflows (new investment inflows less disinvestment) in the reporting economy from foreign investors, and is divided by GDP.
billion USD
annual
2017
2.31
1993  -  2017
Foreign direct investment refers to direct investment equity flows in the reporting economy. It is the sum of equity capital, reinvestment of earnings, and other capital. Direct investment is a category of cross-border investment associated with a resident in one economy having control or a significant degree of influence on the management of an enterprise that is resident in another economy. Ownership of 10 percent or more of the ordinary shares of voting stock is the criterion for determining the existence of a direct investment relationship. Data are in current U.S. dollars.
percent
annual
2018
10.17
1991  -  2018
External balance on goods and services (formerly resource balance) equals exports of goods and services minus imports of goods and services (previously nonfactor services).
billion USD
annual
1999
1.51
1993  -  1999
Total reserves comprise holdings of monetary gold, special drawing rights, reserves of IMF members held by the IMF, and holdings of foreign exchange under the control of monetary authorities. The gold component of these reserves is valued at year-end (December 31) London prices. Data are in current U.S. dollars.
percent
annual
2017
0.03
1996  -  2017
Personal remittances comprise personal transfers and compensation of employees. Personal transfers consist of all current transfers in cash or in kind made or received by resident households to or from nonresident households. Personal transfers thus include all current transfers between resident and nonresident individuals. Compensation of employees refers to the income of border, seasonal, and other short-term workers who are employed in an economy where they are not resident and of residents employed by nonresident entities. Data are the sum of two items defined in the sixth edition of the IMF's Balance of Payments Manual: personal transfers and compensation of employees.
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Government spending and balances
measure
Frequency
Latest value
Last update
Time coverage
percent
annual
2012
8.86
1987  -  2012
General government final consumption expenditure (formerly general government consumption) includes all government current expenditures for purchases of goods and services (including compensation of employees). It also includes most expenditures on national defense and security, but excludes government military expenditures that are part of government capital formation.
billion USD
annual
2017
2.96
1987  -  2017
General government final consumption expenditure (formerly general government consumption) includes all government current expenditures for purchases of goods and services (including compensation of employees). It also includes most expenditures on national defense and security, but excludes government military expenditures that are part of government capital formation. Data are in current U.S. dollars.
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Forecast from the IMF
measure
Frequency
Latest value
Last update
Time coverage
percent
annual
2024
5.72
1993  -  2024
Year-on-year percent changes in constant price GDP. The base year is country-specific. Expenditure-based GDP is the total final expenditure at purchasers prices including the f.o.b. value of exports of goods and services, less the f.o.b. value of imports of goods and services.
percent
annual
2024
6.00
1993  -  2024
Year-on-year percentage changes in end-of-period consumer prices.
percent
annual
2024
-5.69
1996  -  2024
The current account is all transactions other than those in financial and capital items. The major classifications are goods and services, income and current transfers.
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Governance, institutions, corruption
measure
Frequency
Latest value
Last update
Time coverage
points
annual
2017
-1.49
1996  -  2017
The index for Rule of Law captures perceptions of the extent to which agents have confidence in and abide by the rules of society, and in particular the quality of contract enforcement, property rights, the police, and the courts, as well as the likelihood of crime and violence.
points
annual
2017
-1.21
1996  -  2017
The index of Government Effectiveness captures perceptions of the quality of public services, the quality of the civil service and the degree of its independence from political pressures, the quality of policy formulation and implementation, and the credibility of the government's commitment to such policies.
points
annual
2017
-1.48
1996  -  2017
The index for Control of Corruption captures perceptions of the extent to which public power is exercised for private gain, including both petty and grand forms of corruption, as well as capture of the state by elites and private interests.
points
annual
2017
-2.00
1996  -  2017
The index of Regulatory Quality captures perceptions of the ability of the government to formulate and implement sound policies and regulations that permit and promote private sector development.
points
annual
2017
-2.16
1996  -  2017
The index for Voice and Accountability captures perceptions of the extent to which the citizens are able to participate in selecting their government, as well as freedom of expression, freedom of association, and a free media.
points
annual
2017
-0.15
1996  -  2017
The index of Political Stability and Absence of Violence/Terrorism measures perceptions of the likelihood that the government will be destabilized or overthrown by unconstitutional or violent means, including politically-motivated violence and terrorism. The index is an average of several other indexes from the Economist Intelligence Unit, the World Economic Forum, and the Political Risk Services, among others.
points
annual
2018
20
2004  -  2018
The Corruption Perceptions Index is an indicator of perceptions of public sector corruption, i.e. administrative and political corruption. The indicator values are determined by using information from surveys and assessments of corruption, collected by a variety of reputable institutions.
points
annual
2019
7
1991  -  2019
The Political Rights ratings from the Freedom House evaluate three categories: electoral process, political pluralism and participation, and the functioning of government. The index ranges from 1 (strong rights) to 7 (weak rights).
points
annual
2019
7
1991  -  2019
The Civil Liberties index from the Freedom House evaluate the following: freedom of expression and belief, associational and organizational rights, rule of law, and personal autonomy and individual rights. The rating ranges from 1 (strong liberties) to 7 (no liberties).
percent
annual
2018
24.80
1990  -  2018
Women in parliaments are the percentage of parliamentary seats in a single or lower chamber held by women.
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Tax rates and revenue sources
measure
Frequency
Latest value
Last update
Time coverage
percent
annual
2019
20
2017  -  2019
The highest statutory corporate tax rate at central government level. Rates are provided by KPMG member firms.
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Country risk indicators
measure
Frequency
Latest value
Last update
Time coverage
index points
annual
2019
6
2014  -  2019
The short-term political risk classification measures the likelihood of a risk caused by political and assimilated events connected to cross-border transactions with a risk horizon of up to 1 year. In order to assess this risk, Credendo uses a quantitative model, essentially focusing on the evolution of the liquidity situation of the debtor/obligor countries. The aim is to assess the capacity of a country to honour its short-term payment obligations. The model closely follows any deterioration or improvement in the situation of the debtor countries. Countries are classified into seven categories: from 1 (low risk) to 7 (high risk).
index points
annual
2019
6.0
2014  -  2019
The medium-/long-term political risk classification measures the likelihood of a risk caused by political and assimilated events connected to cross-border transactions with a risk horizon beyond 1 year. Credendo developed a quantitative model measuring especially the countries’ solvency. It combines an assessment of the economic and financial situation, an assessment of the political situation and a payment experience analysis for each country. Countries are classified into seven categories: from 1 (low risk) to 7 (high risk).
index points
annual
2019
6
2014  -  2019
The premium category set for political risk related to (special) cash transactions is based on Credendo’s classification for respectively short-term and medium-/long-term political risks related to credit transactions. Countries are classified into seven categories: from 1 (low risk) to 7 (high risk).
index points
annual
2019
6
2014  -  2019
The currency inconvertibility and transfer restriction risk refers to the inability to convert and transfer out of the host country any funds related to the investment. Countries are classified into seven categories: from 1 (low risk) to 7 (high risk).
index points
annual
2019
6
2014  -  2019
The risk of expropriation encompasses all discriminatory measures taken by a host government which deprive the investor of its investment without any adequate compensation; for the purpose of analysing the expropriation risk, events of embargo, change of (legal) regime and denial of justice are included. In order to assess the expropriation risk Credendo not only assesses the risk attached to expropriation as such, but also the functioning of legal institutions in the host country and the probability of a negative change in attitude towards foreign investments. Countries are classified into seven categories: from 1 (low risk) to 7 (high risk).
index points
annual
2019
4
2014  -  2019
Political Violence includes all violent act(s) undertaken with a political objective; this concept is broader than ‘war’ and includes: terrorism (political, religious and ideological objectives) and political violence damage (damage to material assets as a result of political violence); for the purposes of analysing the political violence risk, types of business interruption as a result of political violence damage are included. In order to assess the political violence risk, Credendo looks at the actual levels of internal violence in and external conflict with a country, but also at the conflict potential that arises from (lingering) internal and external tensions, frustration and dissatisfaction. Countries are classified into seven categories (from 1-low risk to 7-high risk).
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Shares of world totals
measure
Frequency
Latest value
Last update
Time coverage
percent
annual
2017
0.08
1960  -  2017
The population share of a particular country is measured as its population as percent of the total world population in a given year. Total population is based on the de facto definition of population, which counts all residents regardless of legal status or citizenship--except for refugees not permanently settled in the country of asylum, who are generally considered part of the population of their country of origin. The values shown are midyear estimates.
percent
annual
2017
0.05
1987  -  2017
We calculated the world GDP as the sum of the GDP of all countries expressed in current USD. The share of GDP is the GDP of a particular country as percent of the world GDP. GDP at purchaser's prices is the sum of gross value added by all resident producers in the economy plus any product taxes and minus any subsidies not included in the value of the products. It is calculated without making deductions for depreciation of fabricated assets or for depletion and degradation of natural resources. Data are in current U.S. dollars. Dollar figures for GDP are converted from domestic currencies using single year official exchange rates. For a few countries where the official exchange rate does not reflect the rate effectively applied to actual foreign exchange transactions, an alternative conversion factor is used.
percent
annual
2017
0.04
1991  -  2017
The share of world exports equals the exports of a particular country as percent of the total exports of all countries around the world. Exports of goods and services represent the value of all goods and other market services provided to the rest of the world. They include the value of merchandise, freight, insurance, transport, travel, royalties, license fees, and other services, such as communication, construction, financial, information, business, personal, and government services. They exclude compensation of employees and investment income (formerly called factor services) and transfer payments. Data are in current U.S. dollars.
percent
annual
2017
0.05
1991  -  2017
The share of world exports equals the exports of a particular country as percent of the total exports of all countries around the world. Imports of goods and services represent the value of all goods and other market services received from the rest of the world. They include the value of merchandise, freight, insurance, transport, travel, royalties, license fees, and other services, such as communication, construction, financial, information, business, personal, and government services. They exclude compensation of employees and investment income (formerly called factor services) and transfer payments. Data are in current U.S. dollars.
percent
annual
2017
0.12
1993  -  2017
Foreign direct investment refers to direct investment equity flows in the reporting economy. It is the sum of equity capital, reinvestment of earnings, and other capital. Direct investment is a category of cross-border investment associated with a resident in one economy having control or a significant degree of influence on the management of an enterprise that is resident in another economy. Ownership of 10 percent or more of the ordinary shares of voting stock is the criterion for determining the existence of a direct investment relationship. Data are in current U.S. dollars.
percent
annual
2017
0.04
1997  -  2017
The share of world oil reserves is calculated as the proven oil reserves of a country as percent of the total proven oil reserves for the world.
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External debt measures
measure
Frequency
Latest value
Last update
Time coverage
percent
annual
2017
1.92
1993  -  2017
Total external debt stocks to gross national income. Total external debt is debt owed to nonresidents repayable in currency, goods, or services. Total external debt is the sum of public, publicly guaranteed, and private nonguaranteed long-term debt, use of IMF credit, and short-term debt. Short-term debt includes all debt having an original maturity of one year or less and interest in arrears on long-term debt. GNI (formerly GNP) is the sum of value added by all resident producers plus any product taxes (less subsidies) not included in the valuation of output plus net receipts of primary income (compensation of employees and property income) from abroad.
percent
annual
2017
0.00
1970  -  2017
Interest represents the average interest rate on all new public and publicly guaranteed loans contracted during the year. To obtain the average, the interest rates for all public and publicly guaranteed loans have been weighted by the amounts of the loans. Public debt is an external obligation of a public debtor, including the national government, a political subdivision (or an agency of either), and autonomous public bodies. Publicly guaranteed debt is an external obligation of a private debtor that is guaranteed for repayment by a public entity.
percent
annual
2017
52.32
1970  -  2017
Short-term debt includes all debt having an original maturity of one year or less and interest in arrears on long-term debt. Total external debt is debt owed to nonresidents repayable in currency, goods, or services. Total external debt is the sum of public, publicly guaranteed, and private nonguaranteed long-term debt, use of IMF credit, and short-term debt.
years
annual
2017
0.00
1970  -  2017
Maturity is the number of years to original maturity date, which is the sum of grace and repayment periods. Grace period for principal is the period from the date of signature of the loan or the issue of the financial instrument to the first repayment of principal. The repayment period is the period from the first to last repayment of principal. To obtain the average, the maturity for all public and publicly guaranteed loans have been weighted by the amounts of the loans. Public debt is an external obligation of a public debtor, including the national government, a political subdivision (or an agency of either), and autonomous public bodies. Publicly guaranteed debt is an external obligation of a private debtor that is guaranteed for repayment by a public entity.
percent
annual
1999
20.56
1993  -  1999
Short-term debt includes all debt having an original maturity of one year or less and interest in arrears on long-term debt. Total reserves includes gold.
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Infrastructure and transport characteristics
measure
Frequency
Latest value
Last update
Time coverage
percent
annual
2017
21.25
1990  -  2017
Internet users are individuals who have used the Internet (from any location) in the last 3 months. The Internet can be used via a computer, mobile phone, personal digital assistant, games machine, digital TV etc.
subscribers
annual
2017
5000
2008  -  2017
Fixed broadband subscriptions refers to fixed subscriptions to high-speed access to the public Internet (a TCP/IP connection), at downstream speeds equal to, or greater than, 256 kbit/s. This includes cable modem, DSL, fiber-to-the-home/building, other fixed (wired)-broadband subscriptions, satellite broadband and terrestrial fixed wireless broadband. This total is measured irrespective of the method of payment. It excludes subscriptions that have access to data communications (including the Internet) via mobile-cellular networks. It should include fixed WiMAX and any other fixed wireless technologies. It includes both residential subscriptions and subscriptions for organizations.
percent
annual
2017
0.09
2008  -  2017
Fixed broadband subscriptions refers to fixed subscriptions to high-speed access to the public Internet (a TCP/IP connection), at downstream speeds equal to, or greater than, 256 kbit/s. This includes cable modem, DSL, fiber-to-the-home/building, other fixed (wired)-broadband subscriptions, satellite broadband and terrestrial fixed wireless broadband. This total is measured irrespective of the method of payment. It excludes subscriptions that have access to data communications (including the Internet) via mobile-cellular networks. It should include fixed WiMAX and any other fixed wireless technologies. It includes both residential subscriptions and subscriptions for organizations.
million subscribers
annual
2017
9.38
1960  -  2017
Mobile cellular telephone subscriptions are subscriptions to a public mobile telephone service that provide access to the PSTN using cellular technology. The indicator includes (and is split into) the number of postpaid subscriptions, and the number of active prepaid accounts (i.e. that have been used during the last three months). The indicator applies to all mobile cellular subscriptions that offer voice communications. It excludes subscriptions via data cards or USB modems, subscriptions to public mobile data services, private trunked mobile radio, telepoint, radio paging and telemetry services.
subscribers per 100 people
annual
2017
162.85
1960  -  2017
Mobile cellular telephone subscriptions are subscriptions to a public mobile telephone service that provide access to the PSTN using cellular technology. The indicator includes (and is split into) the number of postpaid subscriptions, and the number of active prepaid accounts (i.e. that have been used during the last three months). The indicator applies to all mobile cellular subscriptions that offer voice communications. It excludes subscriptions via data cards or USB modems, subscriptions to public mobile data services, private trunked mobile radio, telepoint, radio paging and telemetry services.
million passengers
annual
2017
1.28
1993  -  2017
Air passengers carried include both domestic and international aircraft passengers of air carriers registered in the country.
km
annual
2017
3840
1996  -  2017
Rail lines are the length of railway route available for train service, irrespective of the number of parallel tracks.
metric tons times kilometers
annual
2017
13327
1996  -  2017
Goods transported by railway are the volume of goods transported by railway, measured in metric tons times kilometers traveled.
million passengers times kilometers
annual
2016
2336
2005  -  2016
Passengers carried by railway are the number of passengers transported by rail times kilometers traveled.
passenger cars
annual
2017
4802
2005  -  2017
The indicator estimates the number of new passenger car registrations and sales that took place within a country in a year. Passenger cars are road motor vehicles, other than a motor cycle, intended for the carriage of passengers and designed to seat no more than nine persons (including the driver).
commercial vehicles
annual
2017
215
2005  -  2017
The indicator estimates the number of new commercial vehicle registrations and sales that took place within a country in a year. Commercial vehicles include light commercial vehicles, heavy trucks, coaches and buses (except for some countries in which the buses or heavy trucks data are not available).
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Energy and environment
measure
Frequency
Latest value
Last update
Time coverage
dollars
annual
2016
0.29
1998  -  2016
Fuel prices refer to the pump prices of the most widely sold grade of gasoline. Prices have been converted from the local currency to U.S. dollars.
dollars
annual
2016
0.27
1998  -  2016
Fuel prices refer to the pump prices of the most widely sold grade of diesel fuel. Prices have been converted from the local currency to U.S. dollars.
kilograms of oil equivalent
annual
2014
4893.41
1990  -  2014
Energy use refers to use of primary energy before transformation to other end-use fuels, which is equal to indigenous production plus imports and stock changes, minus exports and fuels supplied to ships and aircraft engaged in international transport.
percent
annual
2015
0.04
1990  -  2015
Renewable energy consumption is the share of renewables energy in total final energy consumption.
kilograms of oil equivalent
annual
2014
341.43
1990  -  2014
Energy use per PPP GDP is the kilogram of oil equivalent of energy use per constant PPP GDP. Energy use refers to use of primary energy before transformation to other end-use fuels, which is equal to indigenous production plus imports and stock changes, minus exports and fuels supplied to ships and aircraft engaged in international transport. PPP GDP is gross domestic product converted to 2011 constant international dollars using purchasing power parity rates. An international dollar has the same purchasing power over GDP as a U.S. dollar has in the United States.
million kWh
annual
2015
0.00
1990  -  2015
Electricity production from renewable sources, excluding hydroelectric, includes geothermal, solar, tides, wind, biomass, and biofuels.
kt
annual
2014
68423
1992  -  2014
Carbon dioxide emissions are those stemming from the burning of fossil fuels and the manufacture of cement. They include carbon dioxide produced during consumption of solid, liquid, and gas fuels and gas flaring.
metric tons
annual
2014
12.52
1992  -  2014
Carbon dioxide emissions are those stemming from the burning of fossil fuels and the manufacture of cement. They include carbon dioxide produced during consumption of solid, liquid, and gas fuels and gas flaring.
GDP per kg of oil equivalent
annual
2014
3.09
1990  -  2014
GDP per unit of energy use is the PPP GDP per kilogram of oil equivalent of energy use. PPP GDP is gross domestic product converted to 2011 constant international dollars using purchasing power parity rates. An international dollar has the same purchasing power over GDP as a U.S. dollar has in the United States.
percent
annual
2014
-191.51
1990  -  2014
Net energy imports are estimated as energy use less production, both measured in oil equivalents. A negative value indicates that the country is a net exporter. Energy use refers to use of primary energy before transformation to other end-use fuels, which is equal to indigenous production plus imports and stock changes, minus exports and fuels supplied to ships and aircraft engaged in international transport.
percent
annual
2017
17.42
1987  -  2017
Total natural resources rents are the sum of oil rents, natural gas rents, coal rents (hard and soft), mineral rents, and forest rents.
percent
annual
2017
5.02
1987  -  2017
Oil rents are the difference between the value of crude oil production at world prices and total costs of production.
percent
annual
2017
12.39
1987  -  2017
Natural gas rents are the difference between the value of natural gas production at world prices and total costs of production.
percent
annual
2017
100.00
2000  -  2017
Access to electricity is the percentage of population with access to electricity. Electrification data are collected from industry, national surveys and international sources.
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Industry: Oil, coal, and electricity
measure
Frequency
Latest value
Last update
Time coverage
billion barrels
annual
2019
0.60
1997  -  2019
Proved reserves of crude oil are the estimated quantities of all liquids defined as crude oil, which geological and engineering data demonstrate with reasonable certainty to be recoverable in future years from reservoirs under existing economic and operating conditions.
thousand barrels per day
annual
2014
61.00
1992  -  2014
Gasoline production includes production of: conventional gasoline; all types of oxygenated gasoline, including gasohol; and reformulated gasoline; but excludes production of aviation gasoline. Volumetric data on blending components, such as oxygenates, are not counted in data on finished motor gasoline until the blending components are blended into the gasoline.
thousand barrels per day
annual
2014
10.21
1992  -  2014
The indicator estimates the volume of jet fuel produced within a country expressed in thousand barrels per day. Jet fuel is a refined petroleum product used in jet aircraft engines and it includes kerosene-type jet fuel and naphtha-type jet fuel.
thousand barrels per day
annual
2012
9.10
1992  -  2012
Liquefied petroleum gases include ethane, ethylene, propane, propylene, normal butane, butylene, isobutane, and isobutylene. The Liquefied Petroleum Gases production also includes, where data are available, liquefied petroleum gases sold directly from natural gas processing plants for fuel or chemical uses and pentanes plus.
thousand barrels per day
annual
2014
145.00
1992  -  2014
Oil consumption (Total petroleum consumption) includes internal consumption, refinery fuel and loss, and bunkering. Also included, where available, is direct combustion of crude oil.
thousand barrels per day
annual
2016
35.00
1992  -  2016
Gasoline consumption includes the consumption of: conventional gasoline; all types of oxygenated gasoline, including gasohol; and reformulated gasoline; but excludes the consumption of aviation gasoline. Volumetric data on blending components, such as oxygenates, are not counted in the data on finished motor gasoline until the blending components are blended into the gasoline.
thousand barrels per day
annual
2016
10.00
1992  -  2016
The indicator estimates the volume of jet fuel consumed within a country expressed in thousand barrels per day. Jet fuel is a refined petroleum product used in jet aircraft engines and it includes kerosene-type jet fuel and naphtha-type jet fuel.
thousand barrels per day
annual
2012
29.00
1992  -  2012
Liquefied petroleum gases include ethane, ethylene, propane, propylene, normal butane, butylene, isobutane, and isobutylene. The Liquefied Petroleum Gases consumption also includes, where data are available, liquefied petroleum gases sold directly from natural gas processing plants for fuel or chemical uses and pentanes plus.
million short tons
annual
2017
0.00
2008  -  2017
Proven reserves of coal in million short tons. A short ton equals exactly 2,000 pounds or 907.18 kilograms.
thousand short tons
annual
2016
0.00
1992  -  2016
Total primary coal production (Coal includes anthracite, subanthracite, bituminous, subbituminous, lignite, brown coal, and oil shale.)
thousand short tons
annual
2016
0.00
1992  -  2016
Coal consumption includes anthracite, subanthracite, bituminous, subbituminous, lignite, brown coal, and oil shale. It also includes net imports of metallurgical coke.
thousand short tons
annual
2016
0.00
1992  -  2016
Amount of foreign coal shipped to the country.
thousand short tons
annual
2016
0.00
1992  -  2016
Amount of coal shipped to foreign destinations.
billion kilowatthours
annual
2016
21.18
1992  -  2016
Total electricity net generation (Net generation excludes the energy consumed by the generating units)
billion kilowatthours
annual
2016
15.09
1992  -  2016
Total Electricity Net Consumption = total net electricity generation + electricity imports - electricity exports – electricity transmission and distribution losses. Net consumption excludes the energy consumed by the generating units.
million kilowatts
annual
2016
4.00
1992  -  2016
Total Electricity Installed Capacity (Million Kilowatts)
billion kilowatthours
annual
2016
0.00
1992  -  2016
Annual import of electricity in billion kWh.
billion kilowatthours
annual
2016
3.20
1992  -  2016
Annual export of electricity in billion kWh.
million kilowatts
annual
2016
0.00
1992  -  2016
Total capacity to produce electricity from renewable resources in million kilowatts.
billion kilowatthours
annual
2016
0.00
1992  -  2016
Total Renewables Electricity Net Generation (Net generation excludes the energy consumed by the generating units and also excludes generation from hydroelectric pumped storage)
thousand Barrels Per Day
annual
2018
244.33
1992  -  2018
Oil production, thousand barrels per day
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Energy mix
measure
Frequency
Latest value
Last update
Time coverage
million kilowatts
annual
2016
4.00
1992  -  2016
Installed capacity to produce electricity from fossil fuels including oil, coal, and natural gas.
billion kilowatthours
annual
2016
21.18
1992  -  2016
Billion kilowatthours of electricity generated from fossil fuels including oil, coal, and natural gas.
million kilowatts
annual
2016
0.00
2000  -  2016
Installed capacity to produce electricity from wind in million kilowatts.
billion kilowatthours
annual
2016
0.00
1992  -  2016
Billion kilowatthours of electricity generated from wind.
million kilowatts
annual
2016
0.00
2000  -  2016
Installed capacity to produce electricity from sunlight in million kilowatts.
billion kilowatthours
annual
2016
0.00
1992  -  2016
Billion kilowatthours of electricity generated from sunlight.
million kilowatts
annual
2016
0.00
1992  -  2016
Installed capacity to produce hydroelectricity in million kilowatts.
billion kilowatthours
annual
2016
0.00
1992  -  2016
Hydroelectric generation excludes generation from hydroelectric pumped storage.
million kilowatts
annual
2016
0.00
1992  -  2016
Installed capacity to produce hydroelectricity in million kilowatts.
billion kilowatthours
annual
2016
0.00
1992  -  2016
Nuclear electricity net generation (Net generation excludes the energy consumed by the generating units)
million kilowatts
annual
2016
0.00
2000  -  2016
Installed capacity to produce geothermal electricity in million kilowatts.
billion kilowatthours
annual
2016
0.00
1992  -  2016
Billion kilowatthours of geothermal electricity generated.
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Agriculture sector
measure
Frequency
Latest value
Last update
Time coverage
percent
annual
2016
8.8
1990  -  2016
Forest area is land under natural or planted stands of trees of at least 5 meters in situ, whether productive or not, and excludes tree stands in agricultural production systems (for example, in fruit plantations and agroforestry systems) and trees in urban parks and gardens.
percent
annual
2016
72.01
1992  -  2016
Agricultural land refers to the share of land area that is arable, under permanent crops, and under permanent pastures. Arable land includes land defined by the FAO as land under temporary crops (double-cropped areas are counted once), temporary meadows for mowing or for pasture, land under market or kitchen gardens, and land temporarily fallow. Land abandoned as a result of shifting cultivation is excluded. Land under permanent crops is land cultivated with crops that occupy the land for long periods and need not be replanted after each harvest, such as cocoa, coffee, and rubber. This category includes land under flowering shrubs, fruit trees, nut trees, and vines, but excludes land under trees grown for wood or timber. Permanent pasture is land used for five or more years for forage, including natural and cultivated crops.
percent
annual
2018
22.78
1991  -  2018
Employment is defined as persons of working age who were engaged in any activity to produce goods or provide services for pay or profit, whether at work during the reference period or not at work due to temporary absence from a job, or to working-time arrangement. The agriculture sector consists of activities in agriculture, hunting, forestry and fishing, in accordance with division 1 (ISIC 2) or categories A-B (ISIC 3) or category A (ISIC 4).
percent
annual
2015
9.30
1987  -  2015
Agriculture corresponds to ISIC divisions 1-5 and includes forestry, hunting, and fishing, as well as cultivation of crops and livestock production. Value added is the net output of a sector after adding up all outputs and subtracting intermediate inputs. It is calculated without making deductions for depreciation of fabricated assets or depletion and degradation of natural resources. The origin of value added is determined by the International Standard Industrial Classification (ISIC), revision 3 or 4.
billion USD
annual
2015
3.33
1987  -  2015
Agriculture corresponds to International Standard Industrial Classification (ISIC) divisions 1-5, while the origin of value added is determined by the ISIC, revision 3. Agriculture value added is the net output of the agriculture sector, including forestry, hunting and fishing, and cultivation of crops and livestock production, after adding up all outputs and subtracting intermediate inputs. Deductions for depreciation of fabricated assets and depletion and degradation of natural resources are not included in the calculation. Values are in billion U.S. dollars.
sq. km.
annual
2016
338380
1992  -  2016
Agricultural land refers to the share of land area that is arable, under permanent crops, and under permanent pastures. Arable land includes land defined by the FAO as land under temporary crops (double-cropped areas are counted once), temporary meadows for mowing or for pasture, land under market or kitchen gardens, and land temporarily fallow. Land abandoned as a result of shifting cultivation is excluded. Land under permanent crops is land cultivated with crops that occupy the land for long periods and need not be replanted after each harvest, such as cocoa, coffee, and rubber. This category includes land under flowering shrubs, fruit trees, nut trees, and vines, but excludes land under trees grown for wood or timber. Permanent pasture is land used for five or more years for forage, including natural and cultivated crops.
index points
annual
2016
83.2
1992  -  2016
Crop production index shows agricultural production for each year relative to the base period 2004-2006. It includes all crops except fodder crops. Regional and income group aggregates for the FAO's production indexes are calculated from the underlying values in international dollars, normalized to the base period 2004-2006.
mm per year
annual
2014
161
1992  -  2014
Average precipitation is the long-term average in depth (over space and time) of annual precipitation in the country. Precipitation is defined as any kind of water that falls from clouds as a liquid or a solid.
percent
annual
2016
4.1
1992  -  2016
Arable land includes land defined by the FAO as land under temporary crops (double-cropped areas are counted once), temporary meadows for mowing or for pasture, land under market or kitchen gardens, and land temporarily fallow. Land abandoned as a result of shifting cultivation is excluded.
kg per hectar
annual
2017
1100
1992  -  2017
Cereal yield, measured as kilograms per hectare of harvested land, includes wheat, rice, maize, barley, oats, rye, millet, sorghum, buckwheat, and mixed grains. Production data on cereals relate to crops harvested for dry grain only. Cereal crops harvested for hay or harvested green for food, feed, or silage and those used for grazing are excluded. The FAO allocates production data to the calendar year in which the bulk of the harvest took place. Most of a crop harvested near the end of a year will be used in the following year.
index points
annual
2016
113.0
1992  -  2016
Food production index covers food crops that are considered edible and that contain nutrients. Coffee and tea are excluded because, although edible, they have no nutritive value.
percent
annual
2017
48.85
1960  -  2017
Rural population refers to people living in rural areas as defined by national statistical offices. It is calculated as the difference between total population and urban population.
index points
annual
2016
117.6
1992  -  2016
Livestock production index includes meat and milk from all sources, dairy products such as cheese, and eggs, honey, raw silk, wool, and hides and skins.
sq. km
annual
2016
41270.0
1990  -  2016
Forest area is land under natural or planted stands of trees of at least 5 meters in situ, whether productive or not, and excludes tree stands in agricultural production systems (for example, in fruit plantations and agroforestry systems) and trees in urban parks and gardens.
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Banking system access
measure
Frequency
Latest value
Last update
Time coverage
percent
annual
2017
0.00
2011  -  2017
The percentage of respondents with a credit card (% age 15+). The data are from the World bank Global Financial Inclusion survey.
percent
annual
2017
37.93
2011  -  2017
The percentage of respondents with a debit card (% age 15+). Data are from the World Bank Global Financial Inclusion survey.
percent
annual
2016
100.00
2015  -  2016
Raw data are from Bankscope. (Sum(data2025) for three largest banks in Bankscope) / (Sum(data2025) for all banks in Bankscope). Only reported if number of banks in Bankscope is 3 or more. Calculated from underlying bank-by-bank unconsolidated data from Bankscope.
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Banking system stability
measure
Frequency
Latest value
Last update
Time coverage
percent
annual
2001
26.93
1993  -  2001
The financial resources provided to the private sector by domestic money banks as a share of total deposits. Domestic money banks comprise commercial banks and other financial institutions that accept transferable deposits, such as demand deposits. Total deposits include demand, time and saving deposits in deposit money banks.
index points
annual
2016
2.91
1999  -  2016
The index captures the probability of default of a country's banking system. Z-score compares the buffer of a country's banking system (capitalization and returns) with the volatility of those returns. It is estimated as (ROA+(equity/assets))/sd(ROA); sd(ROA) is the standard deviation of ROA. ROA, equity, and assets are country-level aggregate figures. Calculated from underlying bank-by-bank unconsolidated data from Bankscope.
percent
annual
2016
74.98
1999  -  2016
The ratio of the value of liquid assets (easily converted to cash) to short-term funding plus total deposits. Liquid assets include cash and due from banks, trading securities and at fair value through income, loans and advances to banks, reverse repos and cash collaterals. Deposits and short term funding includes total customer deposits (current, savings and term) and short term borrowing (money market instruments, CDs and other deposits).
percent
annual
2014
9.24
2009  -  2014
Ratio of bank capital and reserves to total assets. Capital and reserves include funds contributed by owners, retained earnings, general and special reserves, provisions, and valuation adjustments. Capital includes tier 1 capital (paid-up shares and common stock), which is a common feature in all countries' banking systems, and total regulatory capital, which includes several specified types of subordinated debt instruments that need not be repaid if the funds are required to maintain minimum capital levels (these comprise tier 2 and tier 3 capital). Total assets include all nonfinancial and financial assets. Reported by IMF staff. Note that due to differences in national accounting, taxation, and supervisory regimes, these data are not strictly comparable across countries.
percent
annual
2014
18.01
2009  -  2014
The capital adequacy of deposit takers. It is a ratio of total regulatory capital to its assets held, weighted according to the risk of those assets.
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Banking system efficiency
measure
Frequency
Latest value
Last update
Time coverage
percent
annual
2016
0.36
2000  -  2016
Operating expenses of a bank as a share of the value of all assets held. Total assets include total earning assets, cash and due from banks, foreclosed real estate, fixed assets, goodwill, other intangibles, current tax assets, deferred tax assets, discontinued operations and other assets. The numerator and denominator are first aggregated on the country level before division. Note that banks used in the calculation might differ between indicators. Calculated from underlying bank-by-bank unconsolidated data from Bankscope.
percent
annual
2016
1.05
2000  -  2016
Commercial banks’ pre-tax income to yearly averaged total assets. The numerator and denominator are first aggregated on the country level before division. Note that banks used in the calculation might differ between indicators. Calculated from underlying bank-by-bank unconsolidated data from Bankscope.
percent
annual
2016
25.18
2000  -  2016
Commercial banks’ pre-tax income to yearly averaged equity. The numerator and denominator are first aggregated on the country level before division. Note that banks used in the calculation might differ between indicators. Calculated from underlying bank-by-bank unconsolidated data from Bankscope.
percent
annual
2014
40.69
1999  -  2014
Bank’s income that has been generated by noninterest related activities as a percentage of total income (net-interest income plus noninterest income). Noninterest related income includes net gains on trading and derivatives, net gains on other securities, net fees and commissions and other operating income. The number is only calculated when net-interest income is not negative. Note that banks used in the calculation might differ between indicators. Calculated from underlying bank-by-bank unconsolidated data from Bankscope.
percent
annual
2016
1.50
2000  -  2016
Accounting value of bank's net interest revenue as a share of its average interest-bearing (total earning) assets. The numerator and denominator are aggregated on the country level before division. Note that banks used in the calculation might differ between indicators. Calculated from underlying bank-by-bank unconsolidated data from Bankscope.
percent
annual
2014
22.75
1999  -  2014
Operating expenses of a bank as a share of the sum of net-interest revenue and other operating income. The numerator and denominator are first aggregated on the country level before division. Note that banks used in the calculation might differ between indicators. Calculated from underlying bank-by-bank unconsolidated data from Bankscope.
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Banking system depth
measure
Frequency
Latest value
Last update
Time coverage
percent
annual
2001
1.90
1993  -  2001
Domestic credit to private sector refers to financial resources provided to the private sector, such as through loans, purchases of nonequity securities, and trade credits and other accounts receivable, that establish a claim for repayment. For some countries these claims include credit to public enterprises.
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Insurance, non-banks and pensions
measure
Frequency
Latest value
Last update
Time coverage
percent
annual
2011
0.26
2005  -  2011
Ratio of non-life insurance premium volume to GDP. Premium volume is the insurer's direct premiums earned (if Property/Casualty) or received (if Life/Health) during the previous calendar year. Premium data are taken from various issues of Sigma reports (Swiss Re). Data on GDP in US dollars is from the electronic version of the World Development Indicators.
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Innovation measures
measure
Frequency
Latest value
Last update
Time coverage
percent
annual
2000
0.01
2000  -  2000
Information and communication technology goods exports include computers and peripheral equipment, communication equipment, consumer electronic equipment, electronic components, and other information and technology goods (miscellaneous).
patent applications
annual
1999
44
1996  -  1999
Patent applications are worldwide patent applications filed through the Patent Cooperation Treaty procedure or with a national patent office for exclusive rights for an invention--a product or process that provides a new way of doing something or offers a new technical solution to a problem. A patent provides protection for the invention to the owner of the patent for a limited period, generally 20 years.
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Economic freedom indexes
measure
Frequency
Latest value
Last update
Time coverage
points
annual
2019
32
1998  -  2019
The property rights index measures the degree to which a country’s laws protect private property rights and the degree to which its government enforces those laws. It also assesses the likelihood that private property will be expropriated and analyzes the independence of the judiciary, the existence of corruption within the judiciary, and the ability of individuals and businesses to enforce contracts. Higher index values denote more certain legal protection of property.
points
annual
2019
20
1998  -  2019
The score for the Freedom of corruption index is derived primarily from Transparency International’s Corruption Perceptions Index. For countries that are not covered in the CPI the freedom from corruption score is determined by using information from internationally recognized and reliable sources. Higher index values denote lower level of corruption.
points
annual
2019
96
1998  -  2019
The Fiscal freedom index measures the tax burden imposed by government. It is composed of three quantitative factors: the top marginal tax rate on individual income, the top marginal tax rate on corporate income, and the total tax burden as a percentage of GDP.
points
annual
2019
30
1998  -  2019
The Business freedom index is based on 10 indicators, using data from the World Bank’s Doing Business study: Starting a business-procedures (number), time (days), cost (% of income per capita), and minimum capital (% of income per capita); Obtaining a license—procedures (number), time (days), and cost (% of income per capita); Closing a business—time (years), cost (% of estate), and recovery rate (cents on the dollar).
points
annual
2019
20
2005  -  2019
The Labor freedom index is composed of six quantitative factors: ratio of minimum wage to the average value added per worker, hindrance to hiring additional workers, rigidity of hours, difficulty of firing redundant employees, legally mandated notice period, and mandatory severance pay. The index is based on data collected in connection with the World Bank’s Doing Business study.
points
annual
2019
73.40
1998  -  2019
The score for the Monetary freedom index is based on two factors: the weighted average inflation rate for the most recent three years and price controls. Higher index values denote price stability without microeconomic intervention.
points
annual
2019
76
1998  -  2019
The Trade freedom index is based on two indicators: the trade-weighted average tariff rate and non-tariff barriers (including quantity, price, regulatory, customs and investment restrictions, and direct government intervention).
points
annual
2019
10
1998  -  2019
The Investment freedom index evaluates a variety of investment restrictions (burdensome bureaucracy, restrictions on land ownership, expropriation of investments without fair compensation, foreign exchange controls, capital control, security problems, a lack of basic investment infrastructure, etc.). Points are deducted from the ideal score of 100 for each of the restrictions found in a country’s investment regime.
points
annual
2019
10
1998  -  2019
The Financial freedom index evaluates: the extent of government regulation of financial services, the degree of state intervention in banks and other financial firms through direct and indirect ownership, the extent of financial and capital market development, government influence on the allocation of credit and openness to foreign competition. Higher index values denote banking efficiency and independence from government control and interference in the financial sector.
index points
annual
2019
48
1998  -  2019
The Overall index of economic freedom has ten components grouped into four broad categories: Rule of Law; Limited Government; Regulatory Efficiency and Open Markets. The overall economic freedom is scored on a scale of 0 to 100, where 100 represents the maximum freedom.
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Health spending and outcomes
measure
Frequency
Latest value
Last update
Time coverage
USD
annual
2016
422.85
2000  -  2016
Current expenditures on health per capita in current US dollars. Estimates of current health expenditures include healthcare goods and services consumed during each year.
percent
annual
2016
6.62
2000  -  2016
Level of current health expenditure expressed as a percentage of GDP. Estimates of current health expenditures include healthcare goods and services consumed during each year. This indicator does not include capital health expenditures such as buildings, machinery, IT and stocks of vaccines for emergency or outbreaks.
years
annual
2017
67.96
1960  -  2017
Life expectancy at birth indicates the number of years a newborn infant would live if prevailing patterns of mortality at the time of its birth were to stay the same throughout its life.
births per 1000 people
annual
2017
24.61
1960  -  2017
deaths per 1000 people
annual
2017
7.06
1960  -  2017
Crude death rate indicates the number of deaths occurring during the year, per 1,000 population estimated at midyear. Subtracting the crude death rate from the crude birth rate provides the rate of natural increase, which is equal to the rate of population change in the absence of migration.
births per woman
annual
2017
2.84
1960  -  2017
Total fertility rate represents the number of children that would be born to a woman if she were to live to the end of her childbearing years and bear children in accordance with age-specific fertility rates of the specified year.
cases per 100,000 people
annual
2017
43.00
2000  -  2017
Incidence of tuberculosis is the estimated number of new and relapse tuberculosis cases arising in a given year, expressed as the rate per 100,000 population. All forms of TB are included, including cases in people living with HIV. Estimates for all years are recalculated as new information becomes available and techniques are refined, so they may differ from those published previously.
percent
annual
2015
86.8
2000  -  2015
The percentage of people using drinking water from an improved source that is accessible on premises, available when needed and free from faecal and priority chemical contamination. Improved water sources include piped water, boreholes or tubewells, protected dug wells, protected springs, and packaged or delivered water.
percent
annual
2015
85.5
2000  -  2015
Access to an improved water source, urban, refers to the percentage of the urban population using an improved drinking water source. The improved drinking water source includes piped water on premises (piped household water connection located inside the user’s dwelling, plot or yard), and other improved drinking water sources (public taps or standpipes, tube wells or boreholes, protected dug wells, protected springs, and rainwater collection).
suicides per 100,000 people
annual
2016
6.70
2000  -  2016
Suicide mortality rate is the number of suicide deaths in a year per 100,000 population.
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Inequality and poverty
measure
Frequency
Latest value
Last update
Time coverage
index points
annual
1998
40.80
1998  -  1998
Gini index measures the extent to which the distribution of income (or, in some cases, consumption expenditure) among individuals or households within an economy deviates from a perfectly equal distribution. A Lorenz curve plots the cumulative percentages of total income received against the cumulative number of recipients, starting with the poorest individual or household. The Gini index measures the area between the Lorenz curve and a hypothetical line of absolute equality, expressed as a percentage of the maximum area under the line. Thus a Gini index of 0 represents perfect equality, while an index of 100 implies perfect inequality.
percent
annual
1998
51.40
1998  -  1998
Poverty headcount ratio at $1.90 a day is the percentage of the population living on less than $1.90 a day at 2011 international prices. As a result of revisions in PPP exchange rates, poverty rates for individual countries cannot be compared with poverty rates reported in earlier editions.
percent
annual
1998
92.50
1998  -  1998
Poverty headcount ratio at $5.50 a day is the percentage of the population living on less than $5.50 a day at 2011 international prices. As a result of revisions in PPP exchange rates, poverty rates for individual countries cannot be compared with poverty rates reported in earlier editions.
percent
annual
1998
31.70
1998  -  1998
Percentage share of income or consumption is the share that accrues to subgroups of population indicated by deciles or quintiles.
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Education spending and outcomes
measure
Frequency
Latest value
Last update
Time coverage
percent
annual
2012
3.05
2012  -  2012
General government expenditure on education (current, capital, and transfers) is expressed as a percentage of GDP. It includes expenditure funded by transfers from international sources to government. General government usually refers to local, regional and central governments.
percent
annual
2012
20.80
2012  -  2012
General government expenditure on education (current, capital, and transfers) is expressed as a percentage of total general government expenditure on all sectors (including health, education, social services, etc.). It includes expenditure funded by transfers from international sources to government. General government usually refers to local, regional and central governments.
percent
annual
2014
99.70
1995  -  2014
Adult literacy rate is the percentage of people ages 15 and above who can both read and write with understanding a short simple statement about their everyday life.
percent
annual
2014
99.90
1995  -  2014
Youth literacy rate is the percentage of people ages 15-24 who can both read and write with understanding a short simple statement about their everyday life.
percent
annual
2014
99.77
1995  -  2014
Youth literacy rate is the percentage of people ages 15-24 who can both read and write with understanding a short simple statement about their everyday life.
percent
annual
2014
99.80
1995  -  2014
Youth literacy rate is the percentage of people ages 15-24 who can both read and write with understanding a short simple statement about their everyday life.
years
annual
2018
6
1970  -  2018
Primary school starting age is the age at which students would enter primary education, assuming they had started at the official entrance age for the lowest level of education, had studied full-time throughout and had progressed through the system without repeating or skipping a grade.
percent
annual
2014
0.98
2014  -  2014
Gender parity index for gross enrollment ratio in primary education is the ratio of girls to boys enrolled at primary level in public and private schools.
percent
annual
2014
0.96
2014  -  2014
Gender parity index for gross enrollment ratio in secondary education is the ratio of girls to boys enrolled at secondary level in public and private schools.
percent
annual
2014
0.64
2014  -  2014
Gender parity index for gross enrollment ratio in tertiary education is the ratio of women to men enrolled at tertiary level in public and private schools.
percent
annual
2014
88.40
2014  -  2014
Gross enrollment ratio is the ratio of total enrollment, regardless of age, to the population of the age group that officially corresponds to the level of education shown. Primary education provides children with basic reading, writing, and mathematics skills along with an elementary understanding of such subjects as history, geography, natural science, social science, art, and music.
percent
annual
2014
85.82
2014  -  2014
Gross enrollment ratio is the ratio of total enrollment, regardless of age, to the population of the age group that officially corresponds to the level of education shown. Secondary education completes the provision of basic education that began at the primary level, and aims at laying the foundations for lifelong learning and human development, by offering more subject- or skill-oriented instruction using more specialized teachers.
percent
annual
2014
7.97
1981  -  2014
Gross enrollment ratio is the ratio of total enrollment, regardless of age, to the population of the age group that officially corresponds to the level of education shown. Tertiary education, whether or not to an advanced research qualification, normally requires, as a minimum condition of admission, the successful completion of education at the secondary level.
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Globalization indexes
measure
Frequency
Latest value
Last update
Time coverage
points
annual
2016
42.02
1991  -  2016
The overall index of globalization covers the economic, social, and political dimensions of globalization. Higher values denote greater globalization.
points
annual
2016
42.00
1991  -  2016
Economic globalization has two dimensions: actual economic flows and restrictions to trade and capital. The sub-index on actual economic flows includes data on trade, FDI, and portfolio investment. The sub-index on restrictions takes into account hidden import barriers, mean tariff rates, taxes on international trade (as a share of current revenue), and an index of capital controls.
points
annual
2016
40.35
1991  -  2016
The degree of political globalization is determined by the number of embassies and high commissions in a country, the number of international organizations to which the country is a member, the number of UN peace missions a country participated in, and the number of treaties signed between two or more states.
points
annual
2016
44.00
1991  -  2016
Social globalization has three dimensions: personal contacts, information flows, and cultural proximity. The sub-index on personal contacts includes international telecom traffic, degree of tourism, transfers, foreign population, and number of international letters. The sub-index on information flows includes number of internet users, share of households with a television set, and trade in newspapers. The sub-index on cultural proximity includes trade in books and number of McDonald’s restaurants and Ikea located in a country.
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Crime statistics
measure
Frequency
Latest value
Last update
Time coverage
kidnappings per 100,000 people
annual
2004
2.7
2003  -  2004
Number of kidnappings per 100,000 people per year.
robberies per 100,000 people
annual
2006
3
2003  -  2006
Number of robberies per 100,000 people per year.
prisoners per 100,000 people
annual
2017
529
2003  -  2017
Number of prisoners per 100,000 people.
thefts per 100,000 people
annual
2006
30
2005  -  2006
Number of thefts incidents per 100,000 people per year.
homicides per 100,000 people
annual
2015
4.2
1990  -  2015
Number of homicides per 100,000 people per year.
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Religious composition of the population
measure
Frequency
Latest value
Last update
Time coverage
percent
annual
2013
2.6
1991  -  2013
Christians as percent of the total population.
percent
annual
2013
94.0
1991  -  2013
Muslims as percent of the total population.
percent
annual
2013
3.0
1991  -  2013
Eastern Orthodox Christians as percent of the total population.
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Fragile state index
measure
Frequency
Latest value
Last update
Time coverage
index points
annual
2018
72.60
2007  -  2018
The Fragile States Index measures the vulnerability in pre-conflict, active conflict and post-conflict situations. The index comprises twelve conflict risk indicators that are used to measure the condition of a state at any given moment: security apparatus, factionalized elites, group grievance, economic decline, uneven economic development, human flight and brain drain, state legitimacy, public services, human rights and rule of law, demographic pressures, refugees and IDPs, and external intervention. The higher the value of the index, the more "fragile" the country is.
index points
annual
2018
6.00
2007  -  2018
The Security apparatus indicator considers the security threats to a state, such as bombings, attacks and battle-related deaths, rebel movements, mutinies, coups, or terrorism. The Security аpparatus also takes into account serious criminal factors, such as organized crime and homicides, and perceived trust of citizens in domestic security. The higher the value of the indicator, the more the threats in the state.
index points
annual
2018
7.80
2007  -  2018
The Factionalized elites indicator considers the fragmentation of state institutions along ethnic, class, clan, racial or religious lines, as well as and brinksmanship and gridlock between ruling elites. The higher the value, the more fragmented are the institutions in the country.
index points
annual
2018
6.30
2007  -  2018
The Group Grievance Indicator focuses on divisions and schisms between different groups in society – particularly divisions based on social or political characteristics – and their role in access to services or resources, and inclusion in the political process. The higher the value of the indicator, the higher the division of the societal groups in the country.
index points
annual
2018
4.80
2007  -  2018
The Economic decline indicator considers factors related to economic decline within a country. For example, the indicator looks at patterns of progressive economic decline of the society as a whole as measured by per capita income, Gross National Product, unemployment rates, inflation, productivity, debt, poverty levels, or business failures. It also takes into account sudden drops in commodity prices, trade revenue, or foreign investment, and any collapse or devaluation of the national currency. The higher the value of the indicator, the greater the economic decline in the country.
index points
annual
2018
6.70
2007  -  2018
The Uneven economic development indicator considers inequality within the economy, irrespective of the actual performance of an economy. The higher the value of the index, the higher the inequality in the country's economy.
index points
annual
2018
5.00
2007  -  2018
The Human flight and brain drain indicator considers the economic impact of human displacement (for economic or political reasons) and the consequences this may have on a country’s development. The higher the index, the greater the human displacement.
index points
annual
2018
9.70
2007  -  2018
The State legitimacy indicator considers the representativeness and openness of government and its relationship with its citizenry. The indicator looks at the population’s level of confidence in state institutions and processes, and assesses the effects where that confidence is absent, manifested through mass public demonstrations, sustained civil disobedience, or the rise of armed insurgencies. The higher the value of the index, the lower the country's legitimacy.
index points
annual
2018
5.30
2007  -  2018
The Public services indicator refers to the presence of basic state functions that serve the people. This may include the provision of essential services, such as health, education, water and sanitation, transport infrastructure, electricity and power, and internet and connectivity. On the other hand, it may include the state’s ability to protect its citizens, such as from terrorism and violence, through perceived effective policing. The higher the value of the indicator, the worse the public services in the country.
index points
annual
2018
8.70
2007  -  2018
The Human rights and rule of law indicator considers the relationship between the state and its population insofar as fundamental human rights are protected and freedoms are observed and respected. The higher the indicator's value, the less protected are the human rights and the rule of law in the country.
index points
annual
2018
5.40
2007  -  2018
The Demographic pressures indicator considers pressures upon the state deriving from the population itself or the environment around it. For example, the indicator measures population pressures related to food supply, access to safe water, and other life-sustaining resources, or health, such as the prevalence of disease and epidemics. The higher the indicator's value, the higher the demographic pressures in the country.
index points
annual
2018
3.20
2007  -  2018
The Refugees and internally displaced persons indicator measures the pressure upon states caused by the forced displacement of large communities as a result of social, political, environmental or other causes, measuring displacement within countries, as well as refugee flows into others. The higher the value of the indicator, the higher the refugee flow in the country.
index points
annual
2018
3.80
2007  -  2018
The External Intervention Indicator considers the influence and impact of external actors in the functioning – particularly security and economic – of a state. The higher the indicator's value, the greater the external interventions in the country.
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Other indicators
measure
Frequency
Latest value
Last update
Time coverage
points
annual
2019
5.25
2013  -  2019
The Happiness ranking is part of the World Happiness Report. The country scores are based on a survey in which respondents evaluate the quality of their current lives on a scale of 0 to 10.
points
annual
2017
0.706
2010  -  2017
The Human Development Index measures three basic dimensions of human development: long and healthy life, knowledge, and a decent standard of living. Four indicators are used to calculate the index: life expectancy at birth, mean years of schooling, expected years of schooling, and gross national income per capita.
million
annual
2018
5.85
1960  -  2018
Total population is based on the de facto definition of population, which counts all residents regardless of legal status or citizenship. The values shown are midyear estimates.
percent
annual
2018
51.59
1960  -  2018
Urban population refers to people living in urban areas as defined by national statistical offices. The data are collected and smoothed by United Nations Population Division.
percent
annual
2017
4.28
1960  -  2017
Population ages 65 and above as a percentage of the total population. Population is based on the de facto definition of population, which counts all residents regardless of legal status or citizenship.
percent
annual
2017
30.91
1960  -  2017
Total population below the age of 14 as a percentage of the total population. Population is based on the de facto definition of population, which counts all residents regardless of legal status or citizenship.
percent
annual
2017
50.76
1960  -  2017
Female population is the percentage of the population that is female. Population is based on the de facto definition of population, which counts all residents regardless of legal status or citizenship.
sq. km
annual
2018
469930
1961  -  2018
Land area is a country's total area, excluding area under inland water bodies, national claims to continental shelf, and exclusive economic zones. In most cases the definition of inland water bodies includes major rivers and lakes.
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