Spain: Financial openness

* indicates monthly or quarterly data series
 Spain

Financial openness index

 Latest value 2.299
 Year 2021
 Measure index points
 Data availability 1970 - 2021
 Average 1.053
 Min - Max -1.242 - 2.299
 Source Chinn-Ito Index
For that indicator, we provide data for Spain from 1970 to 2021. The average value for Spain during that period was 1.053 index points with a minimum of -1.242 index points in 1970 and a maximum of 2.299 index points in 1998. The latest value from 2021 is 2.299 index points. For comparison, the world average in 2021 based on 176 countries is 0.322 index points. See the global rankings for that indicator or use the country comparator to compare trends over time.
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* indicates monthly or quarterly data series


Recent values chart
Spain - Financial openness  - Recent values chart

Historical chart
Spain - Financial openness  - historical chart - 1970-2021




Definition: The Chinn-Ito index measures a country's degree of capital account openness and was introduced in Chinn and Ito (Journal of Development Economics, 2006). It is based on variables that codify the restrictions on cross-border financial transactions in the IMF's Annual Report on Exchange Arrangements and Exchange Restrictions. Higher values mean greater financial openness.


 Related indicators Latest value Reference Measure
 Terms of trade 98.39 2021 percent
 Trade openness 80.54 2022 percent
 Financial openness 2.299 2021 index points
 Exports, percent of GDP 40.87 2022 percent
 Exports, billion dollars 579.51 2022 billion U.S. dollars
 Growth of exports 15.15 2022 percent
 Imports, percent of GDP 39.66 2022 percent
 Imports, billion dollars 562.33 2022 billion U.S. dollars
 Foreign Direct Investment, percent of GDP 3.63 2022 percent
 Foreign Direct Investment, billion dollars 42.29 2022 billion U.S. dollars
 Portfolio investment inflows, equities -5,726.31 2022 million dollars (current)
 Current account, percent of GDP 2.60 2023 percent
 Current account, in dollars 8.10 2022 billion U.S. dollars
 Trade balance, percent of GDP 1.21 2022 percent
 Trade balance, in dollars 16.55 2022 billion U.S. dollars
 Reserves 92.91 2022 billion U.S. dollars
 Remittances, percent of GDP 0.30 2022 percent
 Remittances 4,268.41 2022 million U.S. dollars
 Net errors and omissions 6,561.31 2022 million USD
 Foreign exchange reserves 92.67 9/2023 billion
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