Liechtenstein Economic Indicators

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Main indicators
Measure
Frequency
Latest value
Reference
Time coverage
percent
-0.69
Nov/2020
monthly
12/1983 - 11/2020
Percent change in the CPI from the same month last year.
percent
1.40
Dec/2019
monthly
1/2006 - 12/2019
The unemployment rate represents the share of the labor force that is without work but available for and seeking employment.
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GDP and economic growth
Measure
Frequency
Latest value
Reference
Time coverage
percent
-1.16
2009
annual
1971  -  2009
Annual percentage growth rate of GDP at market prices based on constant local currency. Aggregates are based on constant 2010 U.S. dollars. GDP is the sum of gross value added by all resident producers in the economy plus any product taxes and minus any subsidies not included in the value of the products. It is calculated without making deductions for depreciation of fabricated assets or for depletion and degradation of natural resources.
billion USD
5.1
2010
annual
2010  -  2010
GDP at purchaser's prices is the sum of gross value added by all resident producers in the economy plus any product taxes and minus any subsidies not included in the value of the products. It is calculated without making deductions for depreciation of fabricated assets or for depletion and degradation of natural resources. Data are in constant 2010 U.S. dollars. Dollar figures for GDP are converted from domestic currencies using 2010 official exchange rates. For a few countries where the official exchange rate does not reflect the rate effectively applied to actual foreign exchange transactions, an alternative conversion factor is used.
billion USD
6.55
2017
annual
1970  -  2017
GDP at purchaser's prices is the sum of gross value added by all resident producers in the economy plus any product taxes and minus any subsidies not included in the value of the products. It is calculated without making deductions for depreciation of fabricated assets or for depletion and degradation of natural resources. Data are in current U.S. dollars. Dollar figures for GDP are converted from domestic currencies using single year official exchange rates. For a few countries where the official exchange rate does not reflect the rate effectively applied to actual foreign exchange transactions, an alternative conversion factor is used.
USD
173356.05
2017
annual
1970  -  2017
GDP per capita is gross domestic product divided by midyear population. GDP is the sum of gross value added by all resident producers in the economy plus any product taxes and minus any subsidies not included in the value of the products. It is calculated without making deductions for depreciation of fabricated assets or for depletion and degradation of natural resources. Data are in current U.S. dollars.
USD
141200.38
2010
annual
2010  -  2010
GDP per capita is gross domestic product divided by midyear population. GDP is the sum of gross value added by all resident producers in the economy plus any product taxes and minus any subsidies not included in the value of the products. It is calculated without making deductions for depreciation of fabricated assets or for depletion and degradation of natural resources. Data are in constant 2010 U.S. dollars.
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Money
Measure
Frequency
Latest value
Reference
Time coverage
index points
101.00
Nov/2020
monthly
12/1982 - 11/2020
The Consumer Price Index (CPI) measures the changes in the cost of a basket of goods and services consumed by the average urban household.
percent
-0.20
Nov/2020
monthly
1/1983 - 11/2020
The percentage change in the CPI from one month to the next.
percent
-0.69
Nov/2020
monthly
12/1983 - 11/2020
Percent change in the CPI from the same month last year.
Local Currency Units per USD
0.9097
Nov/2020
monthly
1/2000 - 11/2020
The amount of local currency units that can be exchanged for one USD. An increase (decrease) means USD appreciation (depreciation).
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Labor market
Measure
Frequency
Latest value
Reference
Time coverage
percent
1.40
Dec/2019
monthly
1/2006 - 12/2019
The unemployment rate represents the share of the labor force that is without work but available for and seeking employment.
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International trade and investment
Measure
Frequency
Latest value
Reference
Time coverage
percent
595.15
2017
annual
2000  -  2017
Foreign direct investment are the net inflows of investment to acquire a lasting management interest (10 percent or more of voting stock) in an enterprise operating in an economy other than that of the investor. It is the sum of equity capital, reinvestment of earnings, other long-term capital, and short-term capital as shown in the balance of payments. This series shows net inflows (new investment inflows less disinvestment) in the reporting economy from foreign investors, and is divided by GDP.
billion USD
-87.21
2018
annual
2000  -  2018
Foreign direct investment refers to direct investment equity flows in the reporting economy. It is the sum of equity capital, reinvestment of earnings, and other capital. Direct investment is a category of cross-border investment associated with a resident in one economy having control or a significant degree of influence on the management of an enterprise that is resident in another economy. Ownership of 10 percent or more of the ordinary shares of voting stock is the criterion for determining the existence of a direct investment relationship. Data are in current U.S. dollars.
million CHF
732.00
Q3/2020
quarterly
Q1/2009 - Q3/2020
Exports comprises all transactions of goods and services (sales, barter, or gifts or grants) from residents of a country to non-residents.
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Government
Measure
Frequency
Latest value
Reference
Time coverage
percent
3.00
2018
annual
2011  -  2018
The fiscal (budget) balance is the difference between government revenue and government expenditure. We express the value as percent of GDP to relate it to the size of the economy.
percent
0.50
2018
annual
2011  -  2018
Debt is the entire stock of direct government fixed-term contractual obligations to others outstanding on a particular date. It includes domestic and foreign liabilities such as currency and money deposits, securities other than shares, and loans. It is the gross amount of government liabilities reduced by the amount of equity and financial derivatives held by the government. Because debt is a stock rather than a flow, it is measured as of a given date, usually the last day of the fiscal year.
Sovereign rating index and outlook
0.0
annual
12/1996 - 2/2016
S&P includes long-term ratings from the highest AAA to the lowest D rating. Moody’s includes long-term ratings from the highest Aaa to the lowest C. Fitch includes long-term ratings from the highest AAA to the lowest D rating. Scope includes long-term foreign-currency ratings from the highest AAA to the lowest D rating.

For all four international credit rating agencies, ratings are divided into two main groups based on the level of credit risk: investment grade for lower levels of credit risk and speculative grade for higher levels of credit risk. For S&P, Fitch and Scope, investment grade issues/issuers are those rated from BBB- and above, while those from BB+ and below are categorized as speculative grade. Moody’s denotes as investment grade issues/issuers as those rated from Baa3 and above, while ratings from Ba1 and below fall into the category of speculative grade.

All four agencies include modifiers into their generic alphabet-based ratings for particular ranges. Ratings from S&P, Fitch and Scope are modified with “+” or “-” from the range AA to CCC. Moody’s appends numerical modifiers from 1 to 3 to the generic rating classifications from Aa to Caa. 1 indicates standing in the higher end of the generic category, while 3 indicates ranking in the lower end. All modifiers denote relative status within major ratings categories.

Rating Outlooks indicate the direction the rating is likely to move over a one- to two-year period. In determining an outlook, consideration is given to any changes in fundamental business conditions. Credit Watch focuses on identifiable events that cause ratings to be placed under special surveillance.

Rating Outlooks/Watches for the four agencies are the following:

- Positive means that a rating may be raised
- Negative means that a rating may be lowered
- Stable means a rating is not likely to change
- When the fundamental trend has strong, conflicting elements of both positive and negative, the Outlook/Watch can be denoted as Developing (for Scope, a Stable Outlook would be assigned in this case).

Credit Watches do not include a Stable Watch because they are only event driven and denote higher probability of change in the rating. Credit Outlooks and Watches are mutually exclusive.
percent
21.60
2019
annual
2018  -  2019
Total tax rate measures the amount of taxes and mandatory contributions payable by businesses after accounting for allowable deductions and exemptions as a share of commercial profits. Taxes withheld (such as personal income tax) or collected and remitted to tax authorities (such as value added taxes, sales taxes or goods and service taxes) are excluded.
hours
49
2019
annual
2018  -  2019
Time to prepare and pay taxes is the time, in hours per year, it takes to prepare, file, and pay (or withhold) three major types of taxes: the corporate income tax, the value added or sales tax, and labor taxes, including payroll taxes and social security contributions.
taxes
34
2019
annual
2018  -  2019
Tax payments by businesses are the total number of taxes paid by businesses, including electronic filing. The tax is counted as paid once a year even if payments are more frequent.
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Governance and business environment
Measure
Frequency
Latest value
Reference
Time coverage
points
1.68
2019
annual
1996  -  2019
The index for Rule of Law captures perceptions of the extent to which agents have confidence in and abide by the rules of society, and in particular the quality of contract enforcement, property rights, the police, and the courts, as well as the likelihood of crime and violence.
points
1.70
2019
annual
1996  -  2019
The index of Government Effectiveness captures perceptions of the quality of public services, the quality of the civil service and the degree of its independence from political pressures, the quality of policy formulation and implementation, and the credibility of the government's commitment to such policies.
points
1.97
2019
annual
1996  -  2019
The index for Control of Corruption captures perceptions of the extent to which public power is exercised for private gain, including both petty and grand forms of corruption, as well as capture of the state by elites and private interests.
points
1.53
2018
annual
1996  -  2018
The index of Regulatory Quality captures perceptions of the ability of the government to formulate and implement sound policies and regulations that permit and promote private sector development.
points
1.26
2019
annual
1996  -  2019
The index for Voice and Accountability captures perceptions of the extent to which the citizens are able to participate in selecting their government, as well as freedom of expression, freedom of association, and a free media.
points
1.63
2019
annual
1996  -  2019
The index of Political Stability and Absence of Violence/Terrorism measures perceptions of the likelihood that the government will be destabilized or overthrown by unconstitutional or violent means, including politically-motivated violence and terrorism. The index is an average of several other indexes from the Economist Intelligence Unit, the World Economic Forum, and the Political Risk Services, among others.
points
2
2020
annual
1972  -  2020
The Political Rights ratings from the Freedom House evaluate three categories: electoral process, political pluralism and participation, and the functioning of government. The index ranges from 1 (strong rights) to 7 (weak rights).
points
1
2020
annual
1972  -  2020
The Civil Liberties index from the Freedom House evaluate the following: freedom of expression and belief, associational and organizational rights, rule of law, and personal autonomy and individual rights. The rating ranges from 1 (strong liberties) to 7 (no liberties).
percent of per capita GNI
2.20
2019
annual
2018  -  2019
The indicator includes all official fees and fees for legal or professional services if such services are required by law. The company law, the commercial code, and specific regulations and fee schedules are used as sources for calculating costs. The indicator excludes bribes.
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Infrastructure and transport characteristics
Measure
Frequency
Latest value
Reference
Time coverage
percent
99.55
2017
annual
1990  -  2017
Internet users are individuals who have used the Internet (from any location) in the last 3 months. The Internet can be used via a computer, mobile phone, personal digital assistant, games machine, digital TV etc.
subscribers
17251
2019
annual
2002  -  2019
Fixed broadband subscriptions refers to fixed subscriptions to high-speed access to the public Internet (a TCP/IP connection), at downstream speeds equal to, or greater than, 256 kbit/s. This includes cable modem, DSL, fiber-to-the-home/building, other fixed (wired)-broadband subscriptions, satellite broadband and terrestrial fixed wireless broadband. This total is measured irrespective of the method of payment. It excludes subscriptions that have access to data communications (including the Internet) via mobile-cellular networks. It should include fixed WiMAX and any other fixed wireless technologies. It includes both residential subscriptions and subscriptions for organizations.
percent
45.37
2019
annual
2002  -  2019
Fixed broadband subscriptions refers to fixed subscriptions to high-speed access to the public Internet (a TCP/IP connection), at downstream speeds equal to, or greater than, 256 kbit/s. This includes cable modem, DSL, fiber-to-the-home/building, other fixed (wired)-broadband subscriptions, satellite broadband and terrestrial fixed wireless broadband. This total is measured irrespective of the method of payment. It excludes subscriptions that have access to data communications (including the Internet) via mobile-cellular networks. It should include fixed WiMAX and any other fixed wireless technologies. It includes both residential subscriptions and subscriptions for organizations.
million subscribers
0.05
2019
annual
1990  -  2019
Mobile cellular telephone subscriptions are subscriptions to a public mobile telephone service that provide access to the PSTN using cellular technology. The indicator includes (and is split into) the number of postpaid subscriptions, and the number of active prepaid accounts (i.e. that have been used during the last three months). The indicator applies to all mobile cellular subscriptions that offer voice communications. It excludes subscriptions via data cards or USB modems, subscriptions to public mobile data services, private trunked mobile radio, telepoint, radio paging and telemetry services.
subscribers per 100 people
127.06
2019
annual
1990  -  2019
Mobile cellular telephone subscriptions are subscriptions to a public mobile telephone service that provide access to the PSTN using cellular technology. The indicator includes (and is split into) the number of postpaid subscriptions, and the number of active prepaid accounts (i.e. that have been used during the last three months). The indicator applies to all mobile cellular subscriptions that offer voice communications. It excludes subscriptions via data cards or USB modems, subscriptions to public mobile data services, private trunked mobile radio, telepoint, radio paging and telemetry services.
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Energy and environment
Measure
Frequency
Latest value
Reference
Time coverage
dollars
1.74
2014
annual
1998  -  2014
Fuel prices refer to the pump prices of the most widely sold grade of gasoline. Prices have been converted from the local currency to U.S. dollars.
dollars
1.79
2014
annual
1998  -  2014
Fuel prices refer to the pump prices of the most widely sold grade of diesel fuel. Prices have been converted from the local currency to U.S. dollars.
percent
63.13
2015
annual
2007  -  2015
Renewable energy consumption is the share of renewables energy in total final energy consumption.
kt
51
2016
annual
2007  -  2016
Carbon dioxide emissions are those stemming from the burning of fossil fuels and the manufacture of cement. They include carbon dioxide produced during consumption of solid, liquid, and gas fuels and gas flaring.
metric tons
1.36
2016
annual
2007  -  2016
Carbon dioxide emissions are those stemming from the burning of fossil fuels and the manufacture of cement. They include carbon dioxide produced during consumption of solid, liquid, and gas fuels and gas flaring.
percent
0.00
2017
annual
1970  -  2017
Total natural resources rents are the sum of oil rents, natural gas rents, coal rents (hard and soft), mineral rents, and forest rents.
percent
100.00
2018
annual
1990  -  2018
Access to electricity is the percentage of population with access to electricity. Electrification data are collected from industry, national surveys and international sources.
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Industry: Oil, coal, and electricity
Measure
Frequency
Latest value
Reference
Time coverage
thousand Barrels Per Day
0.02
2018
annual
1980  -  2018
Oil production, thousand barrels per day
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Agriculture sector
Measure
Frequency
Latest value
Reference
Time coverage
percent
43.1
2016
annual
1990  -  2016
Forest area is land under natural or planted stands of trees of at least 5 meters in situ, whether productive or not, and excludes tree stands in agricultural production systems (for example, in fruit plantations and agroforestry systems) and trees in urban parks and gardens.
percent
32.25
2016
annual
1961  -  2016
Agricultural land refers to the share of land area that is arable, under permanent crops, and under permanent pastures. Arable land includes land defined by the FAO as land under temporary crops (double-cropped areas are counted once), temporary meadows for mowing or for pasture, land under market or kitchen gardens, and land temporarily fallow. Land abandoned as a result of shifting cultivation is excluded. Land under permanent crops is land cultivated with crops that occupy the land for long periods and need not be replanted after each harvest, such as cocoa, coffee, and rubber. This category includes land under flowering shrubs, fruit trees, nut trees, and vines, but excludes land under trees grown for wood or timber. Permanent pasture is land used for five or more years for forage, including natural and cultivated crops.
percent
0.13
2017
annual
2016  -  2017
Agriculture corresponds to ISIC divisions 1-5 and includes forestry, hunting, and fishing, as well as cultivation of crops and livestock production. Value added is the net output of a sector after adding up all outputs and subtracting intermediate inputs. It is calculated without making deductions for depreciation of fabricated assets or depletion and degradation of natural resources. The origin of value added is determined by the International Standard Industrial Classification (ISIC), revision 3 or 4.
billion USD
0.01
2017
annual
2016  -  2017
Agriculture corresponds to International Standard Industrial Classification (ISIC) divisions 1-5, while the origin of value added is determined by the ISIC, revision 3. Agriculture value added is the net output of the agriculture sector, including forestry, hunting and fishing, and cultivation of crops and livestock production, after adding up all outputs and subtracting intermediate inputs. Deductions for depreciation of fabricated assets and depletion and degradation of natural resources are not included in the calculation. Values are in billion U.S. dollars.
sq. km.
52
2016
annual
1961  -  2016
Agricultural land refers to the share of land area that is arable, under permanent crops, and under permanent pastures. Arable land includes land defined by the FAO as land under temporary crops (double-cropped areas are counted once), temporary meadows for mowing or for pasture, land under market or kitchen gardens, and land temporarily fallow. Land abandoned as a result of shifting cultivation is excluded. Land under permanent crops is land cultivated with crops that occupy the land for long periods and need not be replanted after each harvest, such as cocoa, coffee, and rubber. This category includes land under flowering shrubs, fruit trees, nut trees, and vines, but excludes land under trees grown for wood or timber. Permanent pasture is land used for five or more years for forage, including natural and cultivated crops.
index points
109.3
2016
annual
1961  -  2016
Crop production index shows agricultural production for each year relative to the base period 2004-2006. It includes all crops except fodder crops. Regional and income group aggregates for the FAO's production indexes are calculated from the underlying values in international dollars, normalized to the base period 2004-2006.
mm per year
56
2012
annual
1992  -  2012
Average precipitation is the long-term average in depth (over space and time) of annual precipitation in the country. Precipitation is defined as any kind of water that falls from clouds as a liquid or a solid.
percent
13.5
2016
annual
1961  -  2016
Arable land includes land defined by the FAO as land under temporary crops (double-cropped areas are counted once), temporary meadows for mowing or for pasture, land under market or kitchen gardens, and land temporarily fallow. Land abandoned as a result of shifting cultivation is excluded.
index points
97.0
2016
annual
1961  -  2016
Food production index covers food crops that are considered edible and that contain nutrients. Coffee and tea are excluded because, although edible, they have no nutritive value.
index points
96.7
2016
annual
1961  -  2016
Livestock production index includes meat and milk from all sources, dairy products such as cheese, and eggs, honey, raw silk, wool, and hides and skins.
sq. km
69.0
2016
annual
1990  -  2016
Forest area is land under natural or planted stands of trees of at least 5 meters in situ, whether productive or not, and excludes tree stands in agricultural production systems (for example, in fruit plantations and agroforestry systems) and trees in urban parks and gardens.
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Banking system efficiency and stability
Measure
Frequency
Latest value
Reference
Time coverage
percent
115.08
2017
annual
2015  -  2017
Operating expenses of a bank as a share of the sum of net-interest revenue and other operating income. The numerator and denominator are first aggregated on the country level before division. Note that banks used in the calculation might differ between indicators. Calculated from underlying bank-by-bank unconsolidated data from Bankscope.
percent
5.21
2017
annual
2015  -  2017
Operating expenses of a bank as a share of the value of all assets held. Total assets include total earning assets, cash and due from banks, foreclosed real estate, fixed assets, goodwill, other intangibles, current tax assets, deferred tax assets, discontinued operations and other assets. The numerator and denominator are first aggregated on the country level before division. Note that banks used in the calculation might differ between indicators. Calculated from underlying bank-by-bank unconsolidated data from Bankscope.
percent
1.20
2017
annual
2015  -  2017
Accounting value of bank's net interest revenue as a share of its average interest-bearing (total earning) assets. The numerator and denominator are aggregated on the country level before division. Note that banks used in the calculation might differ between indicators. Calculated from underlying bank-by-bank unconsolidated data from Bankscope.
percent
-1.09
2017
annual
2015  -  2017
Commercial banks’ pre-tax income to yearly averaged total assets. The numerator and denominator are first aggregated on the country level before division. Note that banks used in the calculation might differ between indicators. Calculated from underlying bank-by-bank unconsolidated data from Bankscope.
percent
-19.22
2017
annual
2015  -  2017
Commercial banks’ pre-tax income to yearly averaged equity. The numerator and denominator are first aggregated on the country level before division. Note that banks used in the calculation might differ between indicators. Calculated from underlying bank-by-bank unconsolidated data from Bankscope.
percent
70.09
2017
annual
2014  -  2017
The ratio of the value of liquid assets (easily converted to cash) to short-term funding plus total deposits. Liquid assets include cash and due from banks, trading securities and at fair value through income, loans and advances to banks, reverse repos and cash collaterals. Deposits and short term funding includes total customer deposits (current, savings and term) and short term borrowing (money market instruments, CDs and other deposits).
percent
76.39
2017
annual
2015  -  2017
Bank’s income that has been generated by noninterest related activities as a percentage of total income (net-interest income plus noninterest income). Noninterest related income includes net gains on trading and derivatives, net gains on other securities, net fees and commissions and other operating income. The number is only calculated when net-interest income is not negative. Note that banks used in the calculation might differ between indicators. Calculated from underlying bank-by-bank unconsolidated data from Bankscope.
points
3.00
2019
annual
2018  -  2019
Strength of legal rights index measures the degree to which collateral and bankruptcy laws protect the rights of borrowers and lenders and thus facilitate lending. The index ranges from 0 to 12, with higher scores indicating that these laws are better designed to expand access to credit.
points
0.00
2019
annual
2018  -  2019
Depth of credit information index measures rules affecting the scope, accessibility, and quality of credit information available through public or private credit registries. The index ranges from 0 to 8, with higher values indicating the availability of more credit information, from either a public registry or a private bureau, to facilitate lending decisions.
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Economic freedom indexes
Measure
Frequency
Latest value
Reference
Time coverage
points
92
2017
annual
2013  -  2017
The Business freedom index is based on 10 indicators, using data from the World Bank’s Doing Business study: Starting a business-procedures (number), time (days), cost (% of income per capita), and minimum capital (% of income per capita); Obtaining a license—procedures (number), time (days), and cost (% of income per capita); Closing a business—time (years), cost (% of estate), and recovery rate (cents on the dollar).
points
86
2017
annual
2017  -  2017
The Labor freedom index is composed of six quantitative factors: ratio of minimum wage to the average value added per worker, hindrance to hiring additional workers, rigidity of hours, difficulty of firing redundant employees, legally mandated notice period, and mandatory severance pay. The index is based on data collected in connection with the World Bank’s Doing Business study.
points
90
2018
annual
2013  -  2018
The Trade freedom index is based on two indicators: the trade-weighted average tariff rate and non-tariff barriers (including quantity, price, regulatory, customs and investment restrictions, and direct government intervention).
points
85
2020
annual
2014  -  2020
The Investment freedom index evaluates a variety of investment restrictions (burdensome bureaucracy, restrictions on land ownership, expropriation of investments without fair compensation, foreign exchange controls, capital control, security problems, a lack of basic investment infrastructure, etc.). Points are deducted from the ideal score of 100 for each of the restrictions found in a country’s investment regime.
points
80
2020
annual
2013  -  2020
The Financial freedom index evaluates: the extent of government regulation of financial services, the degree of state intervention in banks and other financial firms through direct and indirect ownership, the extent of financial and capital market development, government influence on the allocation of credit and openness to foreign competition. Higher index values denote banking efficiency and independence from government control and interference in the financial sector.
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Demographics
Measure
Frequency
Latest value
Reference
Time coverage
million
0.04
2019
annual
1960  -  2019
Total population is based on the de facto definition of population, which counts all residents regardless of legal status or citizenship. The values shown are midyear estimates.
percent
14.37
2019
annual
1960  -  2019
Urban population refers to people living in urban areas as defined by national statistical offices. The data are collected and smoothed by United Nations Population Division.
people per square km
237
2018
annual
1961  -  2018
Population density is midyear population divided by land area in square kilometers. Population is based on the de facto definition of population, which counts all residents regardless of legal status or citizenship--except for refugees not permanently settled in the country of asylum, who are generally considered part of the population of their country of origin. Land area is a country's total area, excluding area under inland water bodies, national claims to continental shelf, and exclusive economic zones. In most cases the definition of inland water bodies includes major rivers and lakes.
percent
85.63
2019
annual
1960  -  2019
Rural population refers to people living in rural areas as defined by national statistical offices. It is calculated as the difference between total population and urban population.
refugees
168
2018
annual
2000  -  2018
Refugees are people who are recognized as refugees under the 1951 Convention Relating to the Status of Refugees or its 1967 Protocol, the 1969 Organization of African Unity Convention Governing the Specific Aspects of Refugee Problems in Africa, people recognized as refugees in accordance with the UNHCR statute, people granted refugee-like humanitarian status, and people provided temporary protection. Asylum seekers--people who have applied for asylum or refugee status and who have not yet received a decision or who are registered as asylum seekers--are excluded. Palestinian refugees are people (and their descendants) whose residence was Palestine between June 1946 and May 1948 and who lost their homes and means of livelihood as a result of the 1948 Arab-Israeli conflict. Country of asylum is the country where an asylum claim was filed and granted.
percent
63
2015
annual
1990  -  2015
International migrant stock is the number of people born in a country other than that in which they live. It also includes refugees. The data used to estimate the international migrant stock at a particular time are obtained mainly from population censuses. The estimates are derived from the data on foreign-born population--people who have residence in one country but were born in another country. When data on the foreign-born population are not available, data on foreign population--that is, people who are citizens of a country other than the country in which they reside--are used as estimates. After the breakup of the Soviet Union in 1991 people living in one of the newly independent countries who were born in another were classified as international migrants. Estimates of migrant stock in the newly independent states from 1990 on are based on the 1989 census of the Soviet Union. For countries with information on the international migrant stock for at least two points in time, interpolation or extrapolation was used to estimate the international migrant stock on July 1 of the reference years. For countries with only one observation, estimates for the reference years were derived using rates of change in the migrant stock in the years preceding or following the single observation available. A model was used to estimate migrants for countries that had no data.
percent
0.29
2018
annual
1960  -  2018
Annual population growth rate for year t is the exponential rate of growth of midyear population from year t-1 to t, expressed as a percentage . Population is based on the de facto definition of population, which counts all residents regardless of legal status or citizenship.
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Health spending and outcomes
Measure
Frequency
Latest value
Reference
Time coverage
years
83.04
2018
annual
1994  -  2018
Life expectancy at birth indicates the number of years a newborn infant would live if prevailing patterns of mortality at the time of its birth were to stay the same throughout its life.
births per 1000 people
9.90
2018
annual
1960  -  2018
Crude birth rate indicates the number of live births occurring during the year, per 1,000 population estimated at midyear. Subtracting the crude death rate from the crude birth rate provides the rate of natural increase, which is equal to the rate of population change in the absence of migration.
deaths per 1000 people
7.20
2018
annual
1960  -  2018
Crude death rate indicates the number of deaths occurring during the year, per 1,000 population estimated at midyear. Subtracting the crude death rate from the crude birth rate provides the rate of natural increase, which is equal to the rate of population change in the absence of migration.
births per woman
1.58
2018
annual
2000  -  2018
Total fertility rate represents the number of children that would be born to a woman if she were to live to the end of her childbearing years and bear children in accordance with age-specific fertility rates of the specified year.
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Education spending and outcomes
Measure
Frequency
Latest value
Reference
Time coverage
percent
2.56
2011
annual
2003  -  2011
General government expenditure on education (current, capital, and transfers) is expressed as a percentage of GDP. It includes expenditure funded by transfers from international sources to government. General government usually refers to local, regional and central governments.
students per teacher
7.80
2017
annual
2003  -  2017
Primary school pupil-teacher ratio is the average number of pupils per teacher in primary school.
percent
107.33
2018
annual
2003  -  2018
Primary completion rate, or gross intake ratio to the last grade of primary education, is the number of new entrants (enrollments minus repeaters) in the last grade of primary education, regardless of age, divided by the population at the entrance age for the last grade of primary education. Data limitations preclude adjusting for students who drop out during the final year of primary education.
years
7
2020
annual
1970  -  2020
Primary school starting age is the age at which students would enter primary education, assuming they had started at the official entrance age for the lowest level of education, had studied full-time throughout and had progressed through the system without repeating or skipping a grade.
percent
1.01
2018
annual
2003  -  2018
Gender parity index for gross enrollment ratio in primary education is the ratio of girls to boys enrolled at primary level in public and private schools.
percent
0.83
2018
annual
2003  -  2018
Gender parity index for gross enrollment ratio in secondary education is the ratio of girls to boys enrolled at secondary level in public and private schools.
percent
0.56
2018
annual
2003  -  2018
Gender parity index for gross enrollment ratio in tertiary education is the ratio of women to men enrolled at tertiary level in public and private schools.
percent
99.48
2018
annual
2003  -  2018
Gross enrollment ratio is the ratio of total enrollment, regardless of age, to the population of the age group that officially corresponds to the level of education shown. Preprimary education refers to programs at the initial stage of organized instruction, designed primarily to introduce very young children to a school-type environment and to provide a bridge between home and school.
percent
106.33
2018
annual
2003  -  2018
Gross enrollment ratio is the ratio of total enrollment, regardless of age, to the population of the age group that officially corresponds to the level of education shown. Primary education provides children with basic reading, writing, and mathematics skills along with an elementary understanding of such subjects as history, geography, natural science, social science, art, and music.
percent
112.01
2018
annual
2003  -  2018
Gross enrollment ratio is the ratio of total enrollment, regardless of age, to the population of the age group that officially corresponds to the level of education shown. Secondary education completes the provision of basic education that began at the primary level, and aims at laying the foundations for lifelong learning and human development, by offering more subject- or skill-oriented instruction using more specialized teachers.
percent
38.30
2018
annual
2003  -  2018
Gross enrollment ratio is the ratio of total enrollment, regardless of age, to the population of the age group that officially corresponds to the level of education shown. Tertiary education, whether or not to an advanced research qualification, normally requires, as a minimum condition of admission, the successful completion of education at the secondary level.
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Globalization indexes
Measure
Frequency
Latest value
Reference
Time coverage
points
54.56
2017
annual
1970  -  2017
The overall index of globalization covers the economic, social, and political dimensions of globalization. Higher values denote greater globalization. More information and the original data can be obtained here.
points
24.47
2017
annual
1970  -  2017
The degree of political globalization is determined by the number of embassies and high commissions in a country, the number of international organizations to which the country is a member, the number of UN peace missions a country participated in, and the number of treaties signed between two or more states. More information and the original data can be obtained here.
points
88.03
2017
annual
1970  -  2017
Social globalization has three dimensions: personal contacts, information flows, and cultural proximity. The sub-index on personal contacts includes international telecom traffic, degree of tourism, transfers, foreign population, and number of international letters. The sub-index on information flows includes number of internet users, share of households with a television set, and trade in newspapers. The sub-index on cultural proximity includes trade in books and number of McDonald’s restaurants and Ikea located in a country. More information and the original data can be obtained here.
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Shares of world totals
Measure
Frequency
Latest value
Reference
Time coverage
percent
0.00
2018
annual
1960  -  2018
The population share of a particular country is measured as its population as percent of the total world population in a given year. Total population is based on the de facto definition of population, which counts all residents regardless of legal status or citizenship--except for refugees not permanently settled in the country of asylum, who are generally considered part of the population of their country of origin. The values shown are midyear estimates.
percent
0.01
2017
annual
1980  -  2017
We calculated the world GDP as the sum of the GDP of all countries expressed in current USD. The share of GDP is the GDP of a particular country as percent of the world GDP. GDP at purchaser's prices is the sum of gross value added by all resident producers in the economy plus any product taxes and minus any subsidies not included in the value of the products. It is calculated without making deductions for depreciation of fabricated assets or for depletion and degradation of natural resources. Data are in current U.S. dollars. Dollar figures for GDP are converted from domestic currencies using single year official exchange rates. For a few countries where the official exchange rate does not reflect the rate effectively applied to actual foreign exchange transactions, an alternative conversion factor is used.
percent
-7.88
2018
annual
2000  -  2018
Foreign direct investment refers to direct investment equity flows in the reporting economy. It is the sum of equity capital, reinvestment of earnings, and other capital. Direct investment is a category of cross-border investment associated with a resident in one economy having control or a significant degree of influence on the management of an enterprise that is resident in another economy. Ownership of 10 percent or more of the ordinary shares of voting stock is the criterion for determining the existence of a direct investment relationship. Data are in current U.S. dollars.
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Economic structure
Measure
Frequency
Latest value
Reference
Time coverage
percent
44.64
2017
annual
2013  -  2017
Industry corresponds to ISIC divisions 10-45 and includes manufacturing (ISIC divisions 15-37). It comprises value added in mining, manufacturing (also reported as a separate subgroup), construction, electricity, water, and gas. Value added is the net output of a sector after adding up all outputs and subtracting intermediate inputs. It is calculated without making deductions for depreciation of fabricated assets or depletion and degradation of natural resources. The origin of value added is determined by the International Standard Industrial Classification (ISIC), revision 3 or 4.
percent
39.36
2017
annual
2016  -  2017
Manufacturing refers to industries belonging to ISIC divisions 15-37. Value added is the net output of a sector after adding up all outputs and subtracting intermediate inputs. It is calculated without making deductions for depreciation of fabricated assets or depletion and degradation of natural resources. The origin of value added is determined by the International Standard Industrial Classification (ISIC), revision 3. Note: For VAB countries, gross value added at factor cost is used as the denominator.
percent
51.01
2017
annual
2016  -  2017
Services correspond to ISIC divisions 50-99 and they include value added in wholesale and retail trade (including hotels and restaurants), transport, and government, financial, professional, and personal services such as education, health care, and real estate services. Also included are imputed bank service charges, import duties, and any statistical discrepancies noted by national compilers as well as discrepancies arising from rescaling. Value added is the net output of a sector after adding up all outputs and subtracting intermediate inputs. It is calculated without making deductions for depreciation of fabricated assets or depletion and degradation of natural resources. The industrial origin of value added is determined by the International Standard Industrial Classification (ISIC), revision 3 or 4.
billion USD
2.93
2017
annual
2013  -  2017
Industry corresponds to ISIC divisions 10-45 and includes manufacturing (ISIC divisions 15-37). It comprises value added in mining, manufacturing (also reported as a separate subgroup), construction, electricity, water, and gas. Value added is the net output of a sector after adding up all outputs and subtracting intermediate inputs. It is calculated without making deductions for depreciation of fabricated assets or depletion and degradation of natural resources. The origin of value added is determined by the International Standard Industrial Classification (ISIC), revision 3. Data are in current U.S. dollars.
billion USD
2.58
2017
annual
2016  -  2017
Manufacturing refers to industries belonging to ISIC divisions 15-37. Value added is the net output of a sector after adding up all outputs and subtracting intermediate inputs. It is calculated without making deductions for depreciation of fabricated assets or depletion and degradation of natural resources. The origin of value added is determined by the International Standard Industrial Classification (ISIC), revision 3. Data are in current U.S. dollars.
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Tourism
Measure
Frequency
Latest value
Reference
Time coverage
thousand tourists
85
2018
annual
2007  -  2018
International inbound tourists (overnight visitors) are the number of tourists who travel to a country other than that in which they have their usual residence, but outside their usual environment, for a period not exceeding 12 months and whose main purpose in visiting is other than an activity remunerated from within the country visited. When data on number of tourists are not available, the number of visitors, which includes tourists, same-day visitors, cruise passengers, and crew members, is shown instead. Sources and collection methods for arrivals differ across countries. In some cases data are from border statistics (police, immigration, and the like) and supplemented by border surveys. In other cases data are from tourism accommodation establishments. For some countries number of arrivals is limited to arrivals by air and for others to arrivals staying in hotels. Some countries include arrivals of nationals residing abroad while others do not. Caution should thus be used in comparing arrivals across countries. The data on inbound tourists refer to the number of arrivals, not to the number of people traveling. Thus a person who makes several trips to a country during a given period is counted each time as a new arrival.
percent
0.01
2018
annual
2007  -  2018
Percent of total world tourist arrivals that occurred in a given country in a given year.
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Crime statistics
Measure
Frequency
Latest value
Reference
Time coverage
kidnappings per 100,000 people
0.0
2016
annual
2005  -  2016
Number of kidnappings per 100,000 people per year.
robberies per 100,000 people
11
2016
annual
2003  -  2016
Number of robberies per 100,000 people per year.
prisoners per 100,000 people
192
2017
annual
2003  -  2017
Number of prisoners per 100,000 people.
thefts per 100,000 people
521
2016
annual
2003  -  2016
Number of thefts incidents per 100,000 people per year.
homicides per 100,000 people
0.0
2016
annual
1994  -  2016
Number of homicides per 100,000 people per year.
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Other indicators
Measure
Frequency
Latest value
Reference
Time coverage
points
0.917
2019
annual
2000  -  2019
The Human Development Index measures three basic dimensions of human development: long and healthy life, knowledge, and a decent standard of living. Four indicators are used to calculate the index: life expectancy at birth, mean years of schooling, expected years of schooling, and gross national income per capita.
percent
12.00
2019
annual
1997  -  2019
Women in parliaments are the percentage of parliamentary seats in a single or lower chamber held by women.
sq. km
160
2018
annual
1961  -  2018
Land area is a country's total area, excluding area under inland water bodies, national claims to continental shelf, and exclusive economic zones. In most cases the definition of inland water bodies includes major rivers and lakes.
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