(measure: percent; Source: Medina and Schneider (2018))
* indicates monthly or quarterly data series
Kazakhstan: Shadow economy, percent of GDP
For that indicator, Medina and Schneider (2018) provides data for Kazakhstan from 1991 to 2015. The average value for Kazakhstan during that period was 38.88 percent with a minimum of 30.06 percent in 2014 and a maximum of 47.35 percent in 1996.
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Definition: The shadow economy as percent of total annual GDP. Detailed methodology of the estimations can be obtained from the following International Monetary Fund working paper by Leandro Medina and Friedrich Schneider (2018): Shadow Economies Around the World: What Did We Learn Over the Last 20 Years?