Hong Kong Economic Indicators

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Main indicators
Measure
Frequency
Latest value
Reference
Time coverage
percent
0.50
Q2/2019
quarterly
Q1/1974 - Q2/2019
The percent change in the Gross Domestic Product from the same quarter last year using constant prices.
percent
3.26
Sep/2019
monthly
10/1981 - 9/2019
Percent change in the CPI from the same month last year.
percent
2.75
Jun/2019
monthly
9/1998 - 6/2019
The interest rate which best captures the monetary authorities' policy intentions. Different countries have different policy interest rates. The most common are the overnight lending rate, discount rate and repurchase rate (of different maturities). In the USA the policy rate is the federal funds rate. The federal funds rate is the interest rate at which depository institutions trade federal funds (balances held at Federal Reserve Banks) with each other overnight. The federal funds rate is essentially determined by the market but is influenced by the Federal Reserve through open market operations to reach the federal funds rate target. In the Euro area the policy rate is the main refinancing operations rate. The main refinancing operations (MRO) rate is the interest rate banks pay when they borrow money from the ECB for one week. When they do this, they have to provide collateral to guarantee that the money will be paid back. The policy interest rates determine the levels of the rest of the interest rates in the economy, since it is the price at which private agents (mostly private banks) obtain money from the central bank.
percent
3.00
Sep/2019
monthly
8/1981 - 9/2019
The unemployment rate represents the share of the labor force that is without work but available for and seeking employment.
million HKD
37770.00
Q2/2019
quarterly
Q1/1999 - Q2/2019
The current account balance is the sum of net exports of goods and services, net primary income, and net secondary income.
million HKD
-48796.00
Q2/2019
quarterly
Q3/1994 - Q2/2019
Revenue minus expenditure of the consolidated government.
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GDP and economic growth
Measure
Frequency
Latest value
Reference
Time coverage
percent
3.02
2018
annual
1962  -  2018
Annual percentage growth rate of GDP at market prices based on constant local currency. Aggregates are based on constant 2010 U.S. dollars. GDP is the sum of gross value added by all resident producers in the economy plus any product taxes and minus any subsidies not included in the value of the products. It is calculated without making deductions for depreciation of fabricated assets or for depletion and degradation of natural resources.
billion USD
289.0
2018
annual
1961  -  2018
GDP at purchaser's prices is the sum of gross value added by all resident producers in the economy plus any product taxes and minus any subsidies not included in the value of the products. It is calculated without making deductions for depreciation of fabricated assets or for depletion and degradation of natural resources. Data are in constant 2010 U.S. dollars. Dollar figures for GDP are converted from domestic currencies using 2010 official exchange rates. For a few countries where the official exchange rate does not reflect the rate effectively applied to actual foreign exchange transactions, an alternative conversion factor is used.
billion USD
362.99
2018
annual
1960  -  2018
GDP at purchaser's prices is the sum of gross value added by all resident producers in the economy plus any product taxes and minus any subsidies not included in the value of the products. It is calculated without making deductions for depreciation of fabricated assets or for depletion and degradation of natural resources. Data are in current U.S. dollars. Dollar figures for GDP are converted from domestic currencies using single year official exchange rates. For a few countries where the official exchange rate does not reflect the rate effectively applied to actual foreign exchange transactions, an alternative conversion factor is used.
USD
48717.29
2018
annual
1960  -  2018
GDP per capita is gross domestic product divided by midyear population. GDP is the sum of gross value added by all resident producers in the economy plus any product taxes and minus any subsidies not included in the value of the products. It is calculated without making deductions for depreciation of fabricated assets or for depletion and degradation of natural resources. Data are in current U.S. dollars.
USD
57322.46
2018
annual
1990  -  2018
GDP per capita based on purchasing power parity (PPP). PPP GDP is gross domestic product converted to international dollars using purchasing power parity rates. An international dollar has the same purchasing power over GDP as the U.S. dollar has in the United States. GDP at purchaser's prices is the sum of gross value added by all resident producers in the economy plus any product taxes and minus any subsidies not included in the value of the products. It is calculated without making deductions for depreciation of fabricated assets or for depletion and degradation of natural resources. Data are in constant 2011 international dollars.
USD
38784.75
2018
annual
1961  -  2018
GDP per capita is gross domestic product divided by midyear population. GDP is the sum of gross value added by all resident producers in the economy plus any product taxes and minus any subsidies not included in the value of the products. It is calculated without making deductions for depreciation of fabricated assets or for depletion and degradation of natural resources. Data are in constant 2010 U.S. dollars.
percent
0.50
Q2/2019
quarterly
Q1/1974 - Q2/2019
The percent change in the Gross Domestic Product from the same quarter last year using constant prices.
percent
-0.40
Q2/2019
quarterly
Q1/1990 - Q2/2019
The percent change in the Gross Domestic Product from the previous quarter using constant prices. Data are seasonally adjusted.
billion HKD
698.70
Q2/2019
quarterly
Q1/1990 - Q2/2019
The Gross Domestic Product (GDP) is the sum of the gross value added by all resident producers in the economy plus any product taxes and minus any subsidies not included in the value of the products. The data are in billion local currency units using current prices.
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Business cycle indicators
Measure
Frequency
Latest value
Reference
Time coverage
percent
0.30
Q2/2019
quarterly
Q1/1998 - Q2/2019
The indicator shows the percent change in the index of industrial production from the same month last year. Industrial production includes mining and quarrying, manufacturing, and electricity production.
index points
71.30
Aug/2019
monthly
10/2004 - 8/2019
The retail sales index is an aggregated measure of the sales of retail goods over a stated period. Because retail sales are a measure of consumer demand for finished goods, they are a leading macroeconomic indicator of the pulse of an economy and its projected path toward expansion or contraction. The retail sales index measures only the volume changes, i.e. price level changes are excluded.
percent
-25.42
Aug/2019
monthly
10/2005 - 8/2019
The retail sales Y-on-Y is an aggregated measure of the sales of retail goods over a stated period. Because retail sales are a measure of consumer demand for finished goods, they are a leading macroeconomic indicator of the pulse of an economy and its projected path toward expansion or contraction. Retail sales Y-on-Y is calculated as the percent change in the Retail sales index from the same month the previous year. The Retail sales Y-on-Y measures only volume changes, i.e. price level changes are excluded.
index point
244.06
Q4/2018
quarterly
Q1/2013 - Q4/2018
A house price index (HPI) measures the price changes of residential housing as a percentage change from some specific start date (which has HPI of 100).
numbers
53
Jul/2019
monthly
2/2003 - 7/2019
Building permits are a type of authorization that must be granted by a government or other regulatory body before the construction of a new or existing building can legally occur.
percent
3.14
Q4/2018
quarterly
Q4/1980 - Q4/2018
Real residential property price measures the year-on-year percent change of property prices over time.
index points
41.50
Sep/2019
monthly
5/2018 - 9/2019
The manufacturing Purchasing Managers Index (PMI) is an indicator of economic health for the manufacturing sector. The purpose of the PMI is to provide information about current business conditions to company decision makers, analysts and purchasing managers. Each country PMI survey for the manufacturing sector is based on questionnaire responses that cover the following economic variables: output, new orders, new export orders, backlogs of work, output prices, input prices, suppliers’ delivery times, stocks of finished goods, quantity of purchases, stocks of purchases, employment, future output. The manufacturing PMI is a number from 0 to 100. A PMI above 50 represents an expansion when compared with the previous month. A PMI reading under 50 represents a contraction, and a reading at 50 indicates no change.
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Consumption and investment
Measure
Frequency
Latest value
Reference
Time coverage
percent
21.69
2018
annual
1960  -  2018
Gross capital formation (formerly gross domestic investment) consists of outlays on additions to the fixed assets of the economy plus net changes in the level of inventories. Fixed assets include land improvements (fences, ditches, drains, and so on); plant, machinery, and equipment purchases; and the construction of roads, railways, and the like, including schools, offices, hospitals, private residential dwellings, and commercial and industrial buildings. Inventories are stocks of goods held by firms to meet temporary or unexpected fluctuations in production or sales, and "work in progress." According to the 1993 SNA, net acquisitions of valuables are also considered capital formation.
billion USD
78.74
2018
annual
1960  -  2018
Gross capital formation (formerly gross domestic investment) consists of outlays on additions to the fixed assets of the economy plus net changes in the level of inventories. Fixed assets include land improvements (fences, ditches, drains, and so on); plant, machinery, and equipment purchases; and the construction of roads, railways, and the like, including schools, offices, hospitals, private residential dwellings, and commercial and industrial buildings. Inventories are stocks of goods held by firms to meet temporary or unexpected fluctuations in production or sales, and "work in progress." According to the 1993 SNA, net acquisitions of valuables are also considered capital formation. Data are in current U.S. dollars.
percent
68.36
2018
annual
1960  -  2018
Household final consumption expenditure (formerly private consumption) is the market value of all goods and services, including durable products (such as cars, washing machines, and home computers), purchased by households. It excludes purchases of dwellings but includes imputed rent for owner-occupied dwellings. It also includes payments and fees to governments to obtain permits and licenses. Here, household consumption expenditure includes the expenditures of nonprofit institutions serving households, even when reported separately by the country. This item also includes any statistical discrepancy in the use of resources relative to the supply of resources.
billion USD
248.14
2018
annual
1960  -  2018
Household final consumption expenditure (formerly private consumption) is the market value of all goods and services, including durable products (such as cars, washing machines, and home computers), purchased by households. It excludes purchases of dwellings but includes imputed rent for owner-occupied dwellings. It also includes payments and fees to governments to obtain permits and licenses. Here, household consumption expenditure includes the expenditures of nonprofit institutions serving households, even when reported separately by the country. Data are in current U.S. dollars.
percent
65.60
2014
annual
1990  -  2014
The total outstanding debt of households to banks and other financial institutions as percent of GDP.
billion HKD
508.54
Q2/2019
quarterly
Q1/1989 - Q2/2019
The market value of all goods and services, including durable products, purchased by households.
percent
72.78
Q2/2019
quarterly
Q1/1990 - Q2/2019
Household Consumption as percent of GDP
percent
3.82
Q2/2019
quarterly
Q1/1990 - Q2/2019
The percent change in Household Consumption from the same quarter last year.
percent
3.82
Q2/2019
quarterly
Q1/1990 - Q2/2019
The percent change in Household Consumption from the same quarter last year.
billion HKD
138.18
Q2/2019
quarterly
Q1/1989 - Q2/2019
Gross fixed capital formation including land improvements; plant, machinery, and equipment purchases; and the construction of roads, railways, and the like, including schools, offices, hospitals, private residential dwellings, and commercial and industrial buildings.
percent
19.78
Q2/2019
quarterly
Q1/1990 - Q2/2019
Gross fixed capital formation including land improvements; plant, machinery, and equipment purchases; and the construction of roads, railways, and the like, including schools, offices, hospitals, private residential dwellings, and commercial and industrial buildings as percent of GDP
percent
-9.21
Q2/2019
quarterly
Q1/1990 - Q2/2019
The percent change in investment (Physical Capital Accumulation) from the same quarter last year.
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Money
Measure
Frequency
Latest value
Reference
Time coverage
percent
2.4
2018
annual
1982  -  2018
Inflation as measured by the consumer price index reflects the annual percentage change in the cost to the average consumer of acquiring a basket of goods and services that may be fixed or changed at specified intervals, such as yearly. The Laspeyres formula is generally used.
local currency units per dollar
7.84
2018
annual
1960  -  2018
Official exchange rate refers to the exchange rate determined by national authorities or to the rate determined in the legally sanctioned exchange market. It is calculated as an annual average based on monthly averages (local currency units relative to the U.S. dollar).
billion HKD
14532.38
Aug/2019
monthly
12/1984 - 8/2019
The money supply is the total amount of currency and other liquid instruments circulating in the economy. The indicator represents the broad money that include currency outside banks; demand, time, saving, and foreign currency deposits of resident sectors other than the central government; bank and traveler's checks; and other securities such as certificates of deposit and commercial paper.
index points
110.90
Sep/2019
monthly
10/1980 - 9/2019
The Consumer Price Index (CPI) measures the changes in the cost of a basket of goods and services consumed by the average urban household.
percent
0.18
Aug/2019
monthly
11/1980 - 8/2019
The percentage change in the CPI from one month to the next.
percent
3.26
Sep/2019
monthly
10/1981 - 9/2019
Percent change in the CPI from the same month last year.
billion HKD
6718.56
Aug/2019
monthly
12/1980 - 8/2019
Private sector credit refers to the credit extended by commercial banks and other deposit-taking institutions (excluding central banks) to private non-financial firms and households. Included are all credit institutions: domestic and foreign owned as well as private and public ones.
percent
2.75
Jun/2019
monthly
9/1998 - 6/2019
The interest rate which best captures the monetary authorities' policy intentions. Different countries have different policy interest rates. The most common are the overnight lending rate, discount rate and repurchase rate (of different maturities). In the USA the policy rate is the federal funds rate. The federal funds rate is the interest rate at which depository institutions trade federal funds (balances held at Federal Reserve Banks) with each other overnight. The federal funds rate is essentially determined by the market but is influenced by the Federal Reserve through open market operations to reach the federal funds rate target. In the Euro area the policy rate is the main refinancing operations rate. The main refinancing operations (MRO) rate is the interest rate banks pay when they borrow money from the ECB for one week. When they do this, they have to provide collateral to guarantee that the money will be paid back. The policy interest rates determine the levels of the rest of the interest rates in the economy, since it is the price at which private agents (mostly private banks) obtain money from the central bank.
percent
6.70
Q4/2018
quarterly
Q4/1988 - Q4/2018
The credit-to-GDP gap is defined as the difference between the credit-to-GDP ratio and its long-run trend, and captures the build-up of excessive credit in a reduced form fashion.
percent
25.90
Q4/2018
quarterly
Q1/1999 - Q4/2018
Debt service ratio - comprising interest payments and debt amortizations as a proportion of income. The DSR is a measure of the financial constraints imposed by indebtedness.
Local Currency Units per USD
7.8358
Sep/2019
monthly
1/2000 - 9/2019
The amount of local currency units that can be exchanged for one USD. An increase (decrease) means USD appreciation (depreciation).
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Labor market
Measure
Frequency
Latest value
Reference
Time coverage
million people
3.96
2018
annual
1990  -  2018
Labor force comprises people ages 15 and older who supply labor for the production of goods and services during a specified period. It includes people who are currently employed and people who are unemployed but seeking work as well as first-time job-seekers. Not everyone who works is included, however. Unpaid workers, family workers, and students are often omitted, and some countries do not count members of the armed forces. Labor force size tends to vary during the year as seasonal workers enter and leave.
percent
2.78
2018
annual
1991  -  2018
Unemployment refers to the share of the labor force that is without work but available for and seeking employment.
percent
2.52
2018
annual
1991  -  2018
Unemployment refers to the share of the labor force that is without work but available for and seeking employment.
percent
3.03
2018
annual
1991  -  2018
Unemployment refers to the share of the labor force that is without work but available for and seeking employment.
percent
8.03
2018
annual
1991  -  2018
Youth unemployment refers to the share of the labor force ages 15-24 without work but available for and seeking employment.
percent
60.26
2018
annual
1990  -  2018
Labor force participation rate is the proportion of the population ages 15 and older that is economically active: all people who supply labor for the production of goods and services during a specified period.
percent
49.25
2018
annual
1990  -  2018
Female labor force as a percentage of the total show the extent to which women are active in the labor force. Labor force comprises people ages 15 and older who supply labor for the production of goods and services during a specified period.
percent
54.06
2018
annual
1990  -  2018
Labor force participation rate is the proportion of the population ages 15 and older that is economically active: all people who supply labor for the production of goods and services during a specified period.
percent
67.82
2018
annual
1990  -  2018
Labor force participation rate is the proportion of the population ages 15 and older that is economically active: all people who supply labor for the production of goods and services during a specified period.
percent
40.40
2018
annual
1960  -  2018
Age dependency ratio is the ratio of dependents--people younger than 15 or older than 64--to the working-age population--those ages 15-64. Data are shown as the proportion of dependents per 100 working-age population.
million employed people
3.86
Sep/2019
monthly
1/1993 - 9/2019
The number of people, in millions, engaged in the economy as paid employees or as self-employed.
percent
3.00
Sep/2019
monthly
8/1981 - 9/2019
The unemployment rate represents the share of the labor force that is without work but available for and seeking employment.
index points
156.60
Q2/2019
quarterly
Q1/2004 - Q2/2019
The index reflects the level of the total compensation of employees in the economy.
currency units
6300.00
Oct/2019
monthly
5/2011 - 10/2019
Minimum wage is the minimum amount of remuneration that an employer is required to pay wage earners for the work performed during a given period, which cannot be reduced by collective agreement or an individual contract. 
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International trade and investment
Measure
Frequency
Latest value
Reference
Time coverage
percent
97.24
2017
annual
1980  -  2017
Net barter terms of trade index is calculated as the percentage ratio of the export unit value indexes to the import unit value indexes, measured relative to the base year 2000. Unit value indexes are based on data reported by countries that demonstrate consistency under UNCTAD quality controls, supplemented by UNCTAD's estimates using the previous year’s trade values at the Standard International Trade Classification three-digit level as weights. To improve data coverage, especially for the latest periods, UNCTAD constructs a set of average prices indexes at the three-digit product classification of the Standard International Trade Classification revision 3 using UNCTAD’s Commodity Price Statistics, interna­tional and national sources, and UNCTAD secretariat estimates and calculates unit value indexes at the country level using the current year's trade values as weights.
percent
375.99
2018
annual
1960  -  2018
Exports plus imports as percent of GDP.
percent
188.03
2018
annual
1960  -  2018
Exports of goods and services represent the value of all goods and other market services provided to the rest of the world. They include the value of merchandise, freight, insurance, transport, travel, royalties, license fees, and other services, such as communication, construction, financial, information, business, personal, and government services. They exclude compensation of employees and investment income (formerly called factor services) and transfer payments.
billion USD
682.55
2018
annual
1960  -  2018
Exports of goods and services represent the value of all goods and other market services provided to the rest of the world. They include the value of merchandise, freight, insurance, transport, travel, royalties, license fees, and other services, such as communication, construction, financial, information, business, personal, and government services. They exclude compensation of employees and investment income (formerly called factor services) and transfer payments. Data are in current U.S. dollars.
percent
3.76
2018
annual
1962  -  2018
Annual growth rate of exports of goods and services based on constant local currency. Aggregates are based on constant 2010 U.S. dollars. Exports of goods and services represent the value of all goods and other market services provided to the rest of the world. They include the value of merchandise, freight, insurance, transport, travel, royalties, license fees, and other services, such as communication, construction, financial, information, business, personal, and government services. They exclude compensation of employees and investment income (formerly called factor services) and transfer payments.
percent
187.95
2018
annual
1960  -  2018
Imports of goods and services represent the value of all goods and other market services received from the rest of the world. They include the value of merchandise, freight, insurance, transport, travel, royalties, license fees, and other services, such as communication, construction, financial, information, business, personal, and government services. They exclude compensation of employees and investment income (formerly called factor services) and transfer payments.
billion USD
682.26
2018
annual
1960  -  2018
Imports of goods and services represent the value of all goods and other market services received from the rest of the world. They include the value of merchandise, freight, insurance, transport, travel, royalties, license fees, and other services, such as communication, construction, financial, information, business, personal, and government services. They exclude compensation of employees and investment income (formerly called factor services) and transfer payments. Data are in current U.S. dollars.
percent
23.82
2018
annual
1998  -  2018
Foreign direct investment are the net inflows of investment to acquire a lasting management interest (10 percent or more of voting stock) in an enterprise operating in an economy other than that of the investor. It is the sum of equity capital, reinvestment of earnings, other long-term capital, and short-term capital as shown in the balance of payments. This series shows net inflows (new investment inflows less disinvestment) in the reporting economy from foreign investors, and is divided by GDP.
billion USD
86.46
2018
annual
1998  -  2018
Foreign direct investment refers to direct investment equity flows in the reporting economy. It is the sum of equity capital, reinvestment of earnings, and other capital. Direct investment is a category of cross-border investment associated with a resident in one economy having control or a significant degree of influence on the management of an enterprise that is resident in another economy. Ownership of 10 percent or more of the ordinary shares of voting stock is the criterion for determining the existence of a direct investment relationship. Data are in current U.S. dollars.
million dollars (current)
-5042.47
2018
annual
1998  -  2018
Portfolio equity includes net inflows from equity securities other than those recorded as direct investment and including shares, stocks, depository receipts (American or global), and direct purchases of shares in local stock markets by foreign investors. Data are in current U.S. dollars.
percent
4.30
2018
annual
1998  -  2018
Current account balance is the sum of net exports of goods and services, net primary income, and net secondary income.
billion USD
15.63
2018
annual
1998  -  2018
Current account balance is the sum of net exports of goods and services, net primary income, and net secondary income. Data are in current U.S. dollars.
percent
0.08
2018
annual
1960  -  2018
External balance on goods and services (formerly resource balance) equals exports of goods and services minus imports of goods and services (previously nonfactor services).
billion USD
0.30
2018
annual
1998  -  2018
Net trade in goods and services is derived by offsetting imports of goods and services against exports of goods and services. Exports and imports of goods and services comprise all transactions involving a change of ownership of goods and services between residents of one country and the rest of the world. Data are in current U.S. dollars.
billion USD
424.62
2018
annual
1990  -  2018
Total reserves comprise holdings of monetary gold, special drawing rights, reserves of IMF members held by the IMF, and holdings of foreign exchange under the control of monetary authorities. The gold component of these reserves is valued at year-end (December 31) London prices. Data are in current U.S. dollars.
percent
0.12
2018
annual
1998  -  2018
Personal remittances comprise personal transfers and compensation of employees. Personal transfers consist of all current transfers in cash or in kind made or received by resident households to or from nonresident households. Personal transfers thus include all current transfers between resident and nonresident individuals. Compensation of employees refers to the income of border, seasonal, and other short-term workers who are employed in an economy where they are not resident and of residents employed by nonresident entities. Data are the sum of two items defined in the sixth edition of the IMF's Balance of Payments Manual: personal transfers and compensation of employees.
million HKD
37770.00
Q2/2019
quarterly
Q1/1999 - Q2/2019
The current account balance is the sum of net exports of goods and services, net primary income, and net secondary income.
million HKD
1228413.00
Q2/2019
quarterly
Q1/1999 - Q2/2019
Exports comprises all transactions of goods and services (sales, barter, or gifts or grants) from residents of a country to non-residents.
billion USD
438.70
Sep/2019
monthly
1/1997 - 9/2019
Foreign exchange reserves consist of foreign currency, deposits denominated in foreign currency, Monetary Gold, Special Drawing Rights (SDRs) and Reserve position in the International Monetary Fund (IMF). Foreign exchange reserves are held by monetary authorities to finance trade imbalances, check the impact of foreign exchange fluctuations and address other issues under the purview of the central bank.
million HKD
-156406.00
Q2/2019
quarterly
Q1/1999 - Q2/2019
Foreign direct investment refers to direct investment equity flows in the reporting economy. It is the sum of equity capital, reinvestment of earnings, and other capital. Direct investment is a category of cross-border investment associated with a resident in one economy having control or a significant degree of influence on the management of an enterprise that is resident in another economy. Ownership of 10 percent or more of the ordinary shares of voting stock is the criterion for determining the existence of a direct investment relationship.
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Government spending and balances
Measure
Frequency
Latest value
Reference
Time coverage
percent
9.85
2017
annual
1960  -  2017
General government final consumption expenditure (formerly general government consumption) includes all government current expenditures for purchases of goods and services (including compensation of employees). It also includes most expenditures on national defense and security, but excludes government military expenditures that are part of government capital formation.
billion USD
35.82
2018
annual
1960  -  2018
General government final consumption expenditure (formerly general government consumption) includes all government current expenditures for purchases of goods and services (including compensation of employees). It also includes most expenditures on national defense and security, but excludes government military expenditures that are part of government capital formation. Data are in current U.S. dollars.
billion HKD
73.66
Q2/2019
quarterly
Q1/1990 - Q2/2019
Total spending by all levels of government but excluding public enterprises.
million HKD
-48796.00
Q2/2019
quarterly
Q3/1994 - Q2/2019
Revenue minus expenditure of the consolidated government.
Sovereign rating index and outlook
0.0
quarterly
10/1988 - 9/2019
S&P includes long-term ratings from the highest AAA to the lowest D rating. Moody’s includes long-term ratings from the highest Aaa to the lowest C. Fitch includes long-term ratings from the highest AAA to the lowest D rating.

For all three credit rating agencies the ratings are divided into two large groups based on the level of credit risk: investment grade for lower levels of credit risk and speculative grade for higher levels of credit risk. For S&P and Fitch investment grade issues/issuers are those from BBB and above, while those from BB and below are categorized as speculative grade. Moody’s denotes as investment grade issues/issuers from Baa3 and above, while ratings from Ba1 and bellow fall to the category of speculative grade.

All three agencies include modifiers into to their generic alphabet-based ratings for particular ranges. S&P and Fitch ratings are modified with “+” or “-“ from the range AA to CCC. Moody’s appends numerical modifiers from 1 to 3 to the generic rating classifications from Aa to Caa. 1 indicates standing in the higher end of the generic category, while 3 indicates ranking in the lower end. All modifiers denote relative status within major rating categories.

Rating outlooks indicate the direction the rating is likely to move over a one to two year period. In determining an outlook consideration is given to any changes in fundamental business conditions. Credit watch focuses on identifiable events that cause ratings to be placed under special surveillance.

Rating Outlooks/Watches for the three agencies are the following:

- Positive means that a rating may be raised
- Negative means that a rating may be lowered
- Stable means a rating is not likely to change
- When the fundamental trend has strong, conflicting elements of both positive and negative, the outlook/watch is denoted as Developing.

Credit watches do not include Stable watch because they are only event-driven and denote higher probability of change in the rating. Credit Outlooks and Watches are mutually exclusive.
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Forecast from the IMF
Measure
Frequency
Latest value
Reference
Time coverage
percent
2.85
2024
annual
1980  -  2024
Year-on-year percent changes in constant price GDP. The base year is country-specific. Expenditure-based GDP is the total final expenditure at purchasers prices including the f.o.b. value of exports of goods and services, less the f.o.b. value of imports of goods and services.
percent
18.48
2024
annual
1980  -  2024
Expressed as a ratio of total investment in current local currency and GDP in current local currency. Investment or gross capital formation is measured by the total value of the gross fixed capital formation and changes in inventories and acquisitions less disposals of valuables for a unit or sector.
percent
2.50
2024
annual
1982  -  2024
Year-on-year percentage changes in end-of-period consumer prices.
percent
2.76
2024
annual
1980  -  2024
The unemployment rate is the number of unemployed persons as a percentage of the labor force (the total number of people employed plus unemployed).
percent
-3.09
2024
annual
1985  -  2024
The structural budget balance refers to the general government cyclically adjusted balance adjusted for nonstructural elements beyond the economic cycle. These include temporary financial sector and asset price movements as well as one-off, or temporary, revenue or expenditure items. The cyclically adjusted balance is the fiscal balance adjusted for the effects of the economic cycle.
percent
4.04
2024
annual
1980  -  2024
The current account is all transactions other than those in financial and capital items. The major classifications are goods and services, income and current transfers.
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Business environment
Measure
Frequency
Latest value
Reference
Time coverage
points
5.53
2017
annual
2006  -  2017
The Global Competitiveness index is composed of 12 pillars of competitiveness. The pillars are organized as followed: Basic requirements (Institutions, Infrastructure, Macroeconomic Stability, Health and Primary Education); Efficiency enhancers (Higher Education and Training, Goods Market Efficiency, Labour Market Efficiency, Financial Market Sophistication, Technological Readiness, Market Size), and Innovation and sophistication factors (Business Sophistication, Innovation).
points
83.10
2019
annual
2018  -  2019
The Global Competitiveness index is composed of 12 pillars of competitiveness: Institutions, Infrastructure, ICT adoption, Macroeconomic stability, Health, Skills, Product market, Labor market, Financial system, market size, Business, dynamism, and Innovation capability.
index points
1.28
2010
annual
2004  -  2010
The FDI Confidence Index is an indicator created by A.T. Kearney, a global management consulting firm operating in 40 countries across the world. The index ranks countries on a scale from 0 to 3 based on their attractiveness for foreign direct investments. A score of 3 represents the highest level of confidence. The index is constructed using data from a survey capturing the opinions of senior executives and regional and business leaders from 27 countries with high FDI outword flows. Within the survey, the respondents are asked what is the likelihood to make a direct investment in a given country over the next three years: high, medium, low or "no interest". The individual responses are aggregated to produce a country score.
percent of per capita GNI
1.10
2018
annual
2003  -  2018
The indicator includes all official fees and fees for legal or professional services if such services are required by law. The company law, the commercial code, and specific regulations and fee schedules are used as sources for calculating costs. The indicator excludes bribes.
documents
3
2014
annual
2005  -  2014
The total number of documents required per shipment to export goods, including documents required by government ministries, customs authorities, port and container terminal authorities, health and technical control agencies, and banks. Also: all documents required by banks for the issuance or securing of a letter of credit. Documents that are renewed annually and/or that do not require renewal per shipment are not included.
documents
3
2014
annual
2005  -  2014
All documents required per shipment to import goods are recorded. It is assumed that the contract has already been agreed upon and signed by both parties. Documents required for clearance by government ministries, customs authorities, port and container terminal authorities, health and technical control agencies and banks are taken into account. Since payment is by letter of credit, all documents required by banks for the issuance or securing of a letter of credit are also taken into account. Documents that are renewed annually and that do not require renewal per shipment (for example, an annual tax clearance certificate) are not included.
percent
12.39
2015
annual
1991  -  2015
The shadow economy as percent of total annual GDP. Detailed methodology of the estimations can be obtained from the following International Monetary Fund working paper by Leandro Medina and Friedrich Schneider (2018): Shadow Economies Around the World: What Did We Learn Over the Last 20 Years?
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Governance, institutions, corruption
Measure
Frequency
Latest value
Reference
Time coverage
points
1.72
2017
annual
1996  -  2017
The index for Rule of Law captures perceptions of the extent to which agents have confidence in and abide by the rules of society, and in particular the quality of contract enforcement, property rights, the police, and the courts, as well as the likelihood of crime and violence.
points
1.90
2017
annual
1996  -  2017
The index of Government Effectiveness captures perceptions of the quality of public services, the quality of the civil service and the degree of its independence from political pressures, the quality of policy formulation and implementation, and the credibility of the government's commitment to such policies.
points
1.61
2017
annual
1996  -  2017
The index for Control of Corruption captures perceptions of the extent to which public power is exercised for private gain, including both petty and grand forms of corruption, as well as capture of the state by elites and private interests.
points
2.16
2017
annual
1996  -  2017
The index of Regulatory Quality captures perceptions of the ability of the government to formulate and implement sound policies and regulations that permit and promote private sector development.
points
0.43
2017
annual
1996  -  2017
The index for Voice and Accountability captures perceptions of the extent to which the citizens are able to participate in selecting their government, as well as freedom of expression, freedom of association, and a free media.
points
0.85
2017
annual
1996  -  2017
The index of Political Stability and Absence of Violence/Terrorism measures perceptions of the likelihood that the government will be destabilized or overthrown by unconstitutional or violent means, including politically-motivated violence and terrorism. The index is an average of several other indexes from the Economist Intelligence Unit, the World Economic Forum, and the Political Risk Services, among others.
points
76
2018
annual
2001  -  2018
The Corruption Perceptions Index is an indicator of perceptions of public sector corruption, i.e. administrative and political corruption. The indicator values are determined by using information from surveys and assessments of corruption, collected by a variety of reputable institutions.
points
5
2019
annual
2017  -  2019
The Political Rights ratings from the Freedom House evaluate three categories: electoral process, political pluralism and participation, and the functioning of government. The index ranges from 1 (strong rights) to 7 (weak rights).
points
2
2019
annual
2017  -  2019
The Civil Liberties index from the Freedom House evaluate the following: freedom of expression and belief, associational and organizational rights, rule of law, and personal autonomy and individual rights. The rating ranges from 1 (strong liberties) to 7 (no liberties).
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Tax rates and revenue sources
Measure
Frequency
Latest value
Reference
Time coverage
percent
17
2019
annual
2006  -  2019
The highest statutory corporate tax rate at central government level. Rates are provided by KPMG member firms.
percent
15
2019
annual
2006  -  2019
The highest statutory marginal tax rate applied to the taxable income of individuals. Rates are provided by KPMG member firms.
percent
0
2019
annual
2015  -  2019
Statutory VAT rates or consumption taxes similar to a VAT. Rates are provided by KPMG member firms.
percent
22.90
2018
annual
2005  -  2018
Total tax rate measures the amount of taxes and mandatory contributions payable by businesses after accounting for allowable deductions and exemptions as a share of commercial profits. Taxes withheld (such as personal income tax) or collected and remitted to tax authorities (such as value added taxes, sales taxes or goods and service taxes) are excluded.
hours
35
2018
annual
2005  -  2018
Time to prepare and pay taxes is the time, in hours per year, it takes to prepare, file, and pay (or withhold) three major types of taxes: the corporate income tax, the value added or sales tax, and labor taxes, including payroll taxes and social security contributions.
taxes
3
2018
annual
2005  -  2018
Tax payments by businesses are the total number of taxes paid by businesses, including electronic filing. The tax is counted as paid once a year even if payments are more frequent.
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Country risk indicators
Measure
Frequency
Latest value
Reference
Time coverage
index points
1
2019
annual
2014  -  2019
The short-term political risk classification measures the likelihood of a risk caused by political and assimilated events connected to cross-border transactions with a risk horizon of up to 1 year. In order to assess this risk, Credendo uses a quantitative model, essentially focusing on the evolution of the liquidity situation of the debtor/obligor countries. The aim is to assess the capacity of a country to honour its short-term payment obligations. The model closely follows any deterioration or improvement in the situation of the debtor countries. Countries are classified into seven categories: from 1 (low risk) to 7 (high risk).
index points
2.0
2019
annual
2014  -  2019
The medium-/long-term political risk classification measures the likelihood of a risk caused by political and assimilated events connected to cross-border transactions with a risk horizon beyond 1 year. Credendo developed a quantitative model measuring especially the countries’ solvency. It combines an assessment of the economic and financial situation, an assessment of the political situation and a payment experience analysis for each country. Countries are classified into seven categories: from 1 (low risk) to 7 (high risk).
index points
1
2019
annual
2014  -  2019
The premium category set for political risk related to (special) cash transactions is based on Credendo’s classification for respectively short-term and medium-/long-term political risks related to credit transactions. Countries are classified into seven categories: from 1 (low risk) to 7 (high risk).
index points
2
2019
annual
2014  -  2019
The currency inconvertibility and transfer restriction risk refers to the inability to convert and transfer out of the host country any funds related to the investment. Countries are classified into seven categories: from 1 (low risk) to 7 (high risk).
index points
1
2019
annual
2014  -  2019
The risk of expropriation encompasses all discriminatory measures taken by a host government which deprive the investor of its investment without any adequate compensation; for the purpose of analysing the expropriation risk, events of embargo, change of (legal) regime and denial of justice are included. In order to assess the expropriation risk Credendo not only assesses the risk attached to expropriation as such, but also the functioning of legal institutions in the host country and the probability of a negative change in attitude towards foreign investments. Countries are classified into seven categories: from 1 (low risk) to 7 (high risk).
index points
2
2019
annual
2014  -  2019
Political Violence includes all violent act(s) undertaken with a political objective; this concept is broader than ‘war’ and includes: terrorism (political, religious and ideological objectives) and political violence damage (damage to material assets as a result of political violence); for the purposes of analysing the political violence risk, types of business interruption as a result of political violence damage are included. In order to assess the political violence risk, Credendo looks at the actual levels of internal violence in and external conflict with a country, but also at the conflict potential that arises from (lingering) internal and external tensions, frustration and dissatisfaction. Countries are classified into seven categories (from 1-low risk to 7-high risk).
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Infrastructure and transport characteristics
Measure
Frequency
Latest value
Reference
Time coverage
percent
89.42
2017
annual
1990  -  2017
Internet users are individuals who have used the Internet (from any location) in the last 3 months. The Internet can be used via a computer, mobile phone, personal digital assistant, games machine, digital TV etc.
subscribers
2688949
2018
annual
1998  -  2018
Fixed broadband subscriptions refers to fixed subscriptions to high-speed access to the public Internet (a TCP/IP connection), at downstream speeds equal to, or greater than, 256 kbit/s. This includes cable modem, DSL, fiber-to-the-home/building, other fixed (wired)-broadband subscriptions, satellite broadband and terrestrial fixed wireless broadband. This total is measured irrespective of the method of payment. It excludes subscriptions that have access to data communications (including the Internet) via mobile-cellular networks. It should include fixed WiMAX and any other fixed wireless technologies. It includes both residential subscriptions and subscriptions for organizations.
percent
36.48
2018
annual
1998  -  2018
Fixed broadband subscriptions refers to fixed subscriptions to high-speed access to the public Internet (a TCP/IP connection), at downstream speeds equal to, or greater than, 256 kbit/s. This includes cable modem, DSL, fiber-to-the-home/building, other fixed (wired)-broadband subscriptions, satellite broadband and terrestrial fixed wireless broadband. This total is measured irrespective of the method of payment. It excludes subscriptions that have access to data communications (including the Internet) via mobile-cellular networks. It should include fixed WiMAX and any other fixed wireless technologies. It includes both residential subscriptions and subscriptions for organizations.
million subscribers
19.12
2018
annual
1960  -  2018
Mobile cellular telephone subscriptions are subscriptions to a public mobile telephone service that provide access to the PSTN using cellular technology. The indicator includes (and is split into) the number of postpaid subscriptions, and the number of active prepaid accounts (i.e. that have been used during the last three months). The indicator applies to all mobile cellular subscriptions that offer voice communications. It excludes subscriptions via data cards or USB modems, subscriptions to public mobile data services, private trunked mobile radio, telepoint, radio paging and telemetry services.
subscribers per 100 people
259.43
2018
annual
1960  -  2018
Mobile cellular telephone subscriptions are subscriptions to a public mobile telephone service that provide access to the PSTN using cellular technology. The indicator includes (and is split into) the number of postpaid subscriptions, and the number of active prepaid accounts (i.e. that have been used during the last three months). The indicator applies to all mobile cellular subscriptions that offer voice communications. It excludes subscriptions via data cards or USB modems, subscriptions to public mobile data services, private trunked mobile radio, telepoint, radio paging and telemetry services.
million passengers
45.58
2017
annual
1997  -  2017
Air passengers carried include both domestic and international aircraft passengers of air carriers registered in the country.
km
113
2005
annual
2005  -  2005
Rail lines are the length of railway route available for train service, irrespective of the number of parallel tracks.
containers
20770000.00
2017
annual
2005  -  2017
Port container traffic measures the flow of containers from land to sea transport modes., and vice versa, in twenty-foot equivalent units (TEUs), a standard-size container. Data refer to coastal shipping as well as international journeys. Transshipment traffic is counted as two lifts at the intermediate port (once to off-load and again as an outbound lift) and includes empty units.
points
6.50
2019
annual
2009  -  2019
The Quality of railroad infrastrucutre indicator is one of the components of the Global Competitiveness Index published annually by the World Economic Forum (WEF). It represents an assessment of the quality of the railroad system in a given country based on data from the WEF Executive Opinion Survey, a long-running and extensive survey tapping the opinions of over 14,000 business leaders in 144 countries. The score for railroad infrastrucutre quality is based on only one question. The respondents are asked to rate the railroads in their country of operation on a scale from 1 (underdeveloped) to 7 (extensive and efficient by international standards). The individual responses are aggregated to produce a country score.
passenger cars
34596
2018
annual
2005  -  2018
The indicator estimates the number of new passenger car registrations and sales that took place within a country in a year. Passenger cars are road motor vehicles, other than a motor cycle, intended for the carriage of passengers and designed to seat no more than nine persons (including the driver).
commercial vehicles
4543
2018
annual
2005  -  2018
The indicator estimates the number of new commercial vehicle registrations and sales that took place within a country in a year. Commercial vehicles include light commercial vehicles, heavy trucks, coaches and buses (except for some countries in which the buses or heavy trucks data are not available).
points
6.30
2019
annual
2006  -  2019
The Quality of port infrastrucutre indicator is one of the components of the Global Competitiveness Index published annually by the World Economic Forum (WEF). It represents an assessment of the quality of port facilities in a given country based on data from the WEF Executive Opinion Survey, a long-running and extensive survey tapping the opinions of over 14,000 business leaders in 144 countries. The score for port infrastrucutre quality is based on only one question. The respondents are asked to rate the port facilities and inland waterways in their country of operation on a scale from 1 (underdeveloped) to 7 (extensive and efficient by international standards). For landlocked countries, the respondents are asked to rate the access to port facilities and inland waterways on a scale from 1 (impossible) to 7 (easy). The individual responses are aggregated to produce a country score.
kilobits per second
3721.80
2016
annual
2012  -  2016
International Internet bandwidth is the sum of the capacity of all Internet exchanges offering international bandwidth measured in kilobits per second (kb/s).
points
6.60
2019
annual
2006  -  2019
The Quality of air transport infrastructure indicator is one of the components of the Global Competitiveness Index published annually by the World Economic Forum (WEF). It represents an assessment of the quality of airports in a given country based on data from the WEF Executive Opinion Survey, a long-running and extensive survey tapping the opinions of over 14,000 business leaders in 144 countries. The score for air transport infrastructure quality is based on only one question. The respondents are asked to rate the passenger air transport in their country of operation on a scale from 1 (underdeveloped) to 7 (extensive and efficient by international standards). The individual responses are aggregated to produce a country score.
percent
100.00
2016
annual
2012  -  2016
Mobile network coverage measures the percentage of inhabitants who are within range of a mobile cellular signal, irrespective of whether or not they are subscribers. This is calculated by dividing the number of inhabitants within range of a mobile cellular signal by the total population.
points
6.10
2019
annual
2006  -  2019
The Road quality indicator is one of the components of the Global Competitiveness Index published annually by the World Economic Forum (WEF). It represents an assessment of the quality of roads in a given country based on data from the WEF Executive Opinion Survey, a long-running and extensive survey tapping the opinions of over 14,000 business leaders in 144 countries. The road quality indicator score is based on only one question. The respondents are asked to rate the roads in their country of operation on a scale from 1 (underdeveloped) to 7 (extensive and efficient by international standards). The individual responses are aggregated to produce a country score.
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Energy and environment
Measure
Frequency
Latest value
Reference
Time coverage
dollars
1.86
2016
annual
1991  -  2016
Fuel prices refer to the pump prices of the most widely sold grade of gasoline. Prices have been converted from the local currency to U.S. dollars.
dollars
1.42
2016
annual
1991  -  2016
Fuel prices refer to the pump prices of the most widely sold grade of diesel fuel. Prices have been converted from the local currency to U.S. dollars.
kilograms of oil equivalent
1970.48
2014
annual
1971  -  2014
Energy use refers to use of primary energy before transformation to other end-use fuels, which is equal to indigenous production plus imports and stock changes, minus exports and fuels supplied to ships and aircraft engaged in international transport.
percent
0.85
2015
annual
1990  -  2015
Renewable energy consumption is the share of renewables energy in total final energy consumption.
kilograms of oil equivalent
37.33
2014
annual
1990  -  2014
Energy use per PPP GDP is the kilogram of oil equivalent of energy use per constant PPP GDP. Energy use refers to use of primary energy before transformation to other end-use fuels, which is equal to indigenous production plus imports and stock changes, minus exports and fuels supplied to ships and aircraft engaged in international transport. PPP GDP is gross domestic product converted to 2011 constant international dollars using purchasing power parity rates. An international dollar has the same purchasing power over GDP as a U.S. dollar has in the United States.
million kWh
106.00
2015
annual
1971  -  2015
Electricity production from renewable sources, excluding hydroelectric, includes geothermal, solar, tides, wind, biomass, and biofuels.
kt
46223
2014
annual
1960  -  2014
Carbon dioxide emissions are those stemming from the burning of fossil fuels and the manufacture of cement. They include carbon dioxide produced during consumption of solid, liquid, and gas fuels and gas flaring.
metric tons
6.39
2014
annual
1960  -  2014
Carbon dioxide emissions are those stemming from the burning of fossil fuels and the manufacture of cement. They include carbon dioxide produced during consumption of solid, liquid, and gas fuels and gas flaring.
GDP per kg of oil equivalent
28.31
2014
annual
1990  -  2014
GDP per unit of energy use is the PPP GDP per kilogram of oil equivalent of energy use. PPP GDP is gross domestic product converted to 2011 constant international dollars using purchasing power parity rates. An international dollar has the same purchasing power over GDP as a U.S. dollar has in the United States.
percent
98.68
2014
annual
1971  -  2014
Net energy imports are estimated as energy use less production, both measured in oil equivalents. A negative value indicates that the country is a net exporter. Energy use refers to use of primary energy before transformation to other end-use fuels, which is equal to indigenous production plus imports and stock changes, minus exports and fuels supplied to ships and aircraft engaged in international transport.
percent
0.00
2017
annual
1970  -  2017
Total natural resources rents are the sum of oil rents, natural gas rents, coal rents (hard and soft), mineral rents, and forest rents.
percent
0.00
2017
annual
1971  -  2017
Oil rents are the difference between the value of crude oil production at world prices and total costs of production.
percent
0.00
2017
annual
1971  -  2017
Natural gas rents are the difference between the value of natural gas production at world prices and total costs of production.
percent
100.00
2017
annual
1990  -  2017
Access to electricity is the percentage of population with access to electricity. Electrification data are collected from industry, national surveys and international sources.
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Industry: Oil, coal, and electricity
Measure
Frequency
Latest value
Reference
Time coverage
billion barrels
0.00
2019
annual
1980  -  2019
Proved reserves of crude oil are the estimated quantities of all liquids defined as crude oil, which geological and engineering data demonstrate with reasonable certainty to be recoverable in future years from reservoirs under existing economic and operating conditions.
thousand barrels per day
0.00
2014
annual
1986  -  2014
Gasoline production includes production of: conventional gasoline; all types of oxygenated gasoline, including gasohol; and reformulated gasoline; but excludes production of aviation gasoline. Volumetric data on blending components, such as oxygenates, are not counted in data on finished motor gasoline until the blending components are blended into the gasoline.
thousand barrels per day
0.00
2014
annual
1986  -  2014
The indicator estimates the volume of jet fuel produced within a country expressed in thousand barrels per day. Jet fuel is a refined petroleum product used in jet aircraft engines and it includes kerosene-type jet fuel and naphtha-type jet fuel.
thousand barrels per day
0.00
2012
annual
1986  -  2012
Liquefied petroleum gases include ethane, ethylene, propane, propylene, normal butane, butylene, isobutane, and isobutylene. The Liquefied Petroleum Gases production also includes, where data are available, liquefied petroleum gases sold directly from natural gas processing plants for fuel or chemical uses and pentanes plus.
thousand barrels per day
353.00
2014
annual
1980  -  2014
Oil consumption (Total petroleum consumption) includes internal consumption, refinery fuel and loss, and bunkering. Also included, where available, is direct combustion of crude oil.
thousand barrels per day
12.40
2016
annual
1980  -  2016
Gasoline consumption includes the consumption of: conventional gasoline; all types of oxygenated gasoline, including gasohol; and reformulated gasoline; but excludes the consumption of aviation gasoline. Volumetric data on blending components, such as oxygenates, are not counted in the data on finished motor gasoline until the blending components are blended into the gasoline.
thousand barrels per day
133.71
2016
annual
1980  -  2016
The indicator estimates the volume of jet fuel consumed within a country expressed in thousand barrels per day. Jet fuel is a refined petroleum product used in jet aircraft engines and it includes kerosene-type jet fuel and naphtha-type jet fuel.
thousand barrels per day
12.00
2012
annual
1980  -  2012
Liquefied petroleum gases include ethane, ethylene, propane, propylene, normal butane, butylene, isobutane, and isobutylene. The Liquefied Petroleum Gases consumption also includes, where data are available, liquefied petroleum gases sold directly from natural gas processing plants for fuel or chemical uses and pentanes plus.
million short tons
0.00
2017
annual
2008  -  2017
Proven reserves of coal in million short tons. A short ton equals exactly 2,000 pounds or 907.18 kilograms.
thousand short tons
0.00
2016
annual
1980  -  2016
Total primary coal production (Coal includes anthracite, subanthracite, bituminous, subbituminous, lignite, brown coal, and oil shale.)
thousand short tons
12303.07
2016
annual
1980  -  2016
Coal consumption includes anthracite, subanthracite, bituminous, subbituminous, lignite, brown coal, and oil shale. It also includes net imports of metallurgical coke.
thousand short tons
12303.07
2016
annual
1980  -  2016
Amount of foreign coal shipped to the country.
thousand short tons
0.00
2016
annual
1980  -  2016
Amount of coal shipped to foreign destinations.
billion kilowatthours
35.97
2016
annual
1980  -  2016
Total electricity net generation (Net generation excludes the energy consumed by the generating units)
billion kilowatthours
41.84
2016
annual
1980  -  2016
Total Electricity Net Consumption = total net electricity generation + electricity imports - electricity exports – electricity transmission and distribution losses. Net consumption excludes the energy consumed by the generating units.
million kilowatts
12.63
2016
annual
1980  -  2016
Total Electricity Installed Capacity (Million Kilowatts)
billion kilowatthours
11.62
2016
annual
1980  -  2016
Annual import of electricity in billion kWh.
billion kilowatthours
1.21
2016
annual
1980  -  2016
Annual export of electricity in billion kWh.
million kilowatts
0.00
2016
annual
1980  -  2016
Total capacity to produce electricity from renewable resources in million kilowatts.
billion kilowatthours
0.10
2016
annual
1980  -  2016
Total Renewables Electricity Net Generation (Net generation excludes the energy consumed by the generating units and also excludes generation from hydroelectric pumped storage)
thousand Barrels Per Day
0.00
2018
annual
1980  -  2018
Oil production, thousand barrels per day
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Energy mix
Measure
Frequency
Latest value
Reference
Time coverage
million kilowatts
12.63
2016
annual
1980  -  2016
Installed capacity to produce electricity from fossil fuels including oil, coal, and natural gas.
billion kilowatthours
35.86
2016
annual
1980  -  2016
Billion kilowatthours of electricity generated from fossil fuels including oil, coal, and natural gas.
million kilowatts
0.00
2016
annual
2000  -  2016
Installed capacity to produce electricity from wind in million kilowatts.
billion kilowatthours
0.00
2016
annual
1980  -  2016
Billion kilowatthours of electricity generated from wind.
million kilowatts
0.00
2016
annual
2000  -  2016
Installed capacity to produce electricity from sunlight in million kilowatts.
billion kilowatthours
0.00
2016
annual
1980  -  2016
Billion kilowatthours of electricity generated from sunlight.
million kilowatts
0.00
2016
annual
1980  -  2016
Installed capacity to produce hydroelectricity in million kilowatts.
billion kilowatthours
0.00
2016
annual
1980  -  2016
Hydroelectric generation excludes generation from hydroelectric pumped storage.
million kilowatts
0.00
2016
annual
1980  -  2016
Installed capacity to produce hydroelectricity in million kilowatts.
billion kilowatthours
0.00
2016
annual
1980  -  2016
Nuclear electricity net generation (Net generation excludes the energy consumed by the generating units)
million kilowatts
0.00
2016
annual
2000  -  2016
Installed capacity to produce geothermal electricity in million kilowatts.
billion kilowatthours
0.00
2016
annual
1980  -  2016
Billion kilowatthours of geothermal electricity generated.
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Agriculture sector
Measure
Frequency
Latest value
Reference
Time coverage
percent
4.76
2016
annual
1961  -  2016
Agricultural land refers to the share of land area that is arable, under permanent crops, and under permanent pastures. Arable land includes land defined by the FAO as land under temporary crops (double-cropped areas are counted once), temporary meadows for mowing or for pasture, land under market or kitchen gardens, and land temporarily fallow. Land abandoned as a result of shifting cultivation is excluded. Land under permanent crops is land cultivated with crops that occupy the land for long periods and need not be replanted after each harvest, such as cocoa, coffee, and rubber. This category includes land under flowering shrubs, fruit trees, nut trees, and vines, but excludes land under trees grown for wood or timber. Permanent pasture is land used for five or more years for forage, including natural and cultivated crops.
percent
0.21
2018
annual
1991  -  2018
Employment is defined as persons of working age who were engaged in any activity to produce goods or provide services for pay or profit, whether at work during the reference period or not at work due to temporary absence from a job, or to working-time arrangement. The agriculture sector consists of activities in agriculture, hunting, forestry and fishing, in accordance with division 1 (ISIC 2) or categories A-B (ISIC 3) or category A (ISIC 4).
percent
0.07
2017
annual
2000  -  2017
Agriculture corresponds to ISIC divisions 1-5 and includes forestry, hunting, and fishing, as well as cultivation of crops and livestock production. Value added is the net output of a sector after adding up all outputs and subtracting intermediate inputs. It is calculated without making deductions for depreciation of fabricated assets or depletion and degradation of natural resources. The origin of value added is determined by the International Standard Industrial Classification (ISIC), revision 3 or 4.
billion USD
0.22
2017
annual
2000  -  2017
Agriculture corresponds to International Standard Industrial Classification (ISIC) divisions 1-5, while the origin of value added is determined by the ISIC, revision 3. Agriculture value added is the net output of the agriculture sector, including forestry, hunting and fishing, and cultivation of crops and livestock production, after adding up all outputs and subtracting intermediate inputs. Deductions for depreciation of fabricated assets and depletion and degradation of natural resources are not included in the calculation. Values are in billion U.S. dollars.
sq. km.
50
2016
annual
1961  -  2016
Agricultural land refers to the share of land area that is arable, under permanent crops, and under permanent pastures. Arable land includes land defined by the FAO as land under temporary crops (double-cropped areas are counted once), temporary meadows for mowing or for pasture, land under market or kitchen gardens, and land temporarily fallow. Land abandoned as a result of shifting cultivation is excluded. Land under permanent crops is land cultivated with crops that occupy the land for long periods and need not be replanted after each harvest, such as cocoa, coffee, and rubber. This category includes land under flowering shrubs, fruit trees, nut trees, and vines, but excludes land under trees grown for wood or timber. Permanent pasture is land used for five or more years for forage, including natural and cultivated crops.
index points
101.3
2016
annual
1961  -  2016
Crop production index shows agricultural production for each year relative to the base period 2004-2006. It includes all crops except fodder crops. Regional and income group aggregates for the FAO's production indexes are calculated from the underlying values in international dollars, normalized to the base period 2004-2006.
percent
2.9
2016
annual
1961  -  2016
Arable land includes land defined by the FAO as land under temporary crops (double-cropped areas are counted once), temporary meadows for mowing or for pasture, land under market or kitchen gardens, and land temporarily fallow. Land abandoned as a result of shifting cultivation is excluded.
kg per hectar
2000
2017
annual
1961  -  2017
Cereal yield, measured as kilograms per hectare of harvested land, includes wheat, rice, maize, barley, oats, rye, millet, sorghum, buckwheat, and mixed grains. Production data on cereals relate to crops harvested for dry grain only. Cereal crops harvested for hay or harvested green for food, feed, or silage and those used for grazing are excluded. The FAO allocates production data to the calendar year in which the bulk of the harvest took place. Most of a crop harvested near the end of a year will be used in the following year.
index points
59.3
2016
annual
1961  -  2016
Food production index covers food crops that are considered edible and that contain nutrients. Coffee and tea are excluded because, although edible, they have no nutritive value.
percent
0.00
2018
annual
1960  -  2018
Rural population refers to people living in rural areas as defined by national statistical offices. It is calculated as the difference between total population and urban population.
kg per hectare of arable land
2704.0
2016
annual
2002  -  2016
Fertilizer consumption measures the quantity of plant nutrients used per unit of arable land. Fertilizer products cover nitrogenous, potash, and phosphate fertilizers (including ground rock phosphate). Traditional nutrients--animal and plant manures--are not included. For the purpose of data dissemination, FAO has adopted the concept of a calendar year (January to December). Some countries compile fertilizer data on a calendar year basis, while others are on a split-year basis. Arable land includes land defined by the FAO as land under temporary crops (double-cropped areas are counted once), temporary meadows for mowing or for pasture, land under market or kitchen gardens, and land temporarily fallow. Land abandoned as a result of shifting cultivation is excluded.
index points
51.2
2016
annual
1961  -  2016
Livestock production index includes meat and milk from all sources, dairy products such as cheese, and eggs, honey, raw silk, wool, and hides and skins.
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Banking system access
Measure
Frequency
Latest value
Reference
Time coverage
ATMs per 100,000 adults
51.80
2018
annual
2004  -  2018
Number of ATMs per 100,000 adults. Automated teller machines are computerized telecommunications devices that provide clients of a financial institution with access to financial transactions in a public place.
percent
65.42
2017
annual
2011  -  2017
The percentage of respondents with a credit card (% age 15+). The data are from the World bank Global Financial Inclusion survey.
percent
82.88
2017
annual
2011  -  2017
The percentage of respondents with a debit card (% age 15+). Data are from the World Bank Global Financial Inclusion survey.
percent
62.68
2016
annual
1996  -  2016
Raw data are from Bankscope. (Sum(data2025) for three largest banks in Bankscope) / (Sum(data2025) for all banks in Bankscope). Only reported if number of banks in Bankscope is 3 or more. Calculated from underlying bank-by-bank unconsolidated data from Bankscope.
bank branches
21.43
2016
annual
2004  -  2016
Number of commercial bank branches per 100,000 adults.
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Banking system stability
Measure
Frequency
Latest value
Reference
Time coverage
percent
0.67
2017
annual
2008  -  2017
Bank nonperforming loans to total gross loans are the value of nonperforming loans divided by the total value of the loan portfolio (including nonperforming loans before the deduction of specific loan-loss provisions). The loan amount recorded as nonperforming should be the gross value of the loan as recorded on the balance sheet, not just the amount that is overdue.
percent
58.03
2016
annual
1991  -  2016
The financial resources provided to the private sector by domestic money banks as a share of total deposits. Domestic money banks comprise commercial banks and other financial institutions that accept transferable deposits, such as demand deposits. Total deposits include demand, time and saving deposits in deposit money banks.
index points
15.68
2016
annual
1996  -  2016
The index captures the probability of default of a country's banking system. Z-score compares the buffer of a country's banking system (capitalization and returns) with the volatility of those returns. It is estimated as (ROA+(equity/assets))/sd(ROA); sd(ROA) is the standard deviation of ROA. ROA, equity, and assets are country-level aggregate figures. Calculated from underlying bank-by-bank unconsolidated data from Bankscope.
percent
29.45
2016
annual
1996  -  2016
The ratio of the value of liquid assets (easily converted to cash) to short-term funding plus total deposits. Liquid assets include cash and due from banks, trading securities and at fair value through income, loans and advances to banks, reverse repos and cash collaterals. Deposits and short term funding includes total customer deposits (current, savings and term) and short term borrowing (money market instruments, CDs and other deposits).
percent
9.78
2016
annual
1998  -  2016
Ratio of bank capital and reserves to total assets. Capital and reserves include funds contributed by owners, retained earnings, general and special reserves, provisions, and valuation adjustments. Capital includes tier 1 capital (paid-up shares and common stock), which is a common feature in all countries' banking systems, and total regulatory capital, which includes several specified types of subordinated debt instruments that need not be repaid if the funds are required to maintain minimum capital levels (these comprise tier 2 and tier 3 capital). Total assets include all nonfinancial and financial assets. Reported by IMF staff. Note that due to differences in national accounting, taxation, and supervisory regimes, these data are not strictly comparable across countries.
percent
19.16
2016
annual
1998  -  2016
The capital adequacy of deposit takers. It is a ratio of total regulatory capital to its assets held, weighted according to the risk of those assets.
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Banking system efficiency
Measure
Frequency
Latest value
Reference
Time coverage
percent
0.96
2016
annual
1996  -  2016
Operating expenses of a bank as a share of the value of all assets held. Total assets include total earning assets, cash and due from banks, foreclosed real estate, fixed assets, goodwill, other intangibles, current tax assets, deferred tax assets, discontinued operations and other assets. The numerator and denominator are first aggregated on the country level before division. Note that banks used in the calculation might differ between indicators. Calculated from underlying bank-by-bank unconsolidated data from Bankscope.
interest rate points
4.99
2016
annual
1990  -  2016
Difference between the lending rate and the deposit rate. The lending rate is the rate charged by banks on loans to the private sector and the deposit interest rate is the rate offered by commercial banks on three-month deposits.
percent
1.22
2016
annual
1996  -  2016
Commercial banks’ pre-tax income to yearly averaged total assets. The numerator and denominator are first aggregated on the country level before division. Note that banks used in the calculation might differ between indicators. Calculated from underlying bank-by-bank unconsolidated data from Bankscope.
percent
13.15
2016
annual
1996  -  2016
Commercial banks’ pre-tax income to yearly averaged equity. The numerator and denominator are first aggregated on the country level before division. Note that banks used in the calculation might differ between indicators. Calculated from underlying bank-by-bank unconsolidated data from Bankscope.
percent
69.36
2014
annual
1996  -  2014
Bank’s income that has been generated by noninterest related activities as a percentage of total income (net-interest income plus noninterest income). Noninterest related income includes net gains on trading and derivatives, net gains on other securities, net fees and commissions and other operating income. The number is only calculated when net-interest income is not negative. Note that banks used in the calculation might differ between indicators. Calculated from underlying bank-by-bank unconsolidated data from Bankscope.
percent
1.46
2016
annual
1996  -  2016
Accounting value of bank's net interest revenue as a share of its average interest-bearing (total earning) assets. The numerator and denominator are aggregated on the country level before division. Note that banks used in the calculation might differ between indicators. Calculated from underlying bank-by-bank unconsolidated data from Bankscope.
percent
70.28
2014
annual
1996  -  2014
Operating expenses of a bank as a share of the sum of net-interest revenue and other operating income. The numerator and denominator are first aggregated on the country level before division. Note that banks used in the calculation might differ between indicators. Calculated from underlying bank-by-bank unconsolidated data from Bankscope.
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Banking system depth
Measure
Frequency
Latest value
Reference
Time coverage
percent
238.30
Q4/2018
quarterly
Q4/1978 - Q4/2018
Bank credit to the private non-financial sector expressed as percent of GDP.
percent
66.30
Q4/2018
quarterly
Q1/1999 - Q4/2018
Total credit is the amount of credit available to the government sector from financial institutions. It consists of the total amount of combined funds that are provided to the government by financial companies.
percent
291.60
Q4/2018
quarterly
Q4/1978 - Q4/2018
Total credit is the amount of credit available to the private non-financial sector from a banking institution. It consists of the total amount of combined funds that financial institutions provide to this sector.
percent
219.40
Q4/2018
quarterly
Q4/1990 - Q4/2018
Total credit to non-financial corporations refers to resources provided to the these corporations by financial institutions.
percent
72.20
Q4/2018
quarterly
Q4/1990 - Q4/2018
Total credit is the amount of credit available to households from financial institutions. It consists of the total amount of combined funds that are provided to individuals by financial companies.
percent
219.14
2018
annual
1990  -  2018
Domestic credit to private sector by banks refers to financial resources provided to the private sector by other depository corporations (deposit taking corporations except central banks), such as through loans, purchases of nonequity securities, and trade credits and other accounts receivable, that establish a claim for repayment. For some countries these claims include credit to public enterprises.
percent
362.20
2016
annual
1991  -  2016
Ratio of liquid liabilities to GDP. Liquid liabilities are also known as broad money, or M3. They are the sum of currency and deposits in the central bank (M0), plus transferable deposits and electronic currency (M1), plus time and savings deposits, foreign currency transferable deposits, certificates of deposit, and securities repurchase agreements (M2), plus travelers checks, foreign currency time deposits, commercial paper, and shares of mutual funds or market funds held by residents.
percent
242.19
2016
annual
1990  -  2016
Total assets held by deposit money banks as a share of GDP. Assets include claims on domestic real nonfinancial sector which includes central, state and local governments, nonfinancial public enterprises and private sector. Deposit money banks comprise commercial banks and other financial institutions that accept transferable deposits, such as demand deposits.
percent
203.80
2016
annual
1990  -  2016
Domestic credit to private sector refers to financial resources provided to the private sector, such as through loans, purchases of nonequity securities, and trade credits and other accounts receivable, that establish a claim for repayment. For some countries these claims include credit to public enterprises.
percent
43.83
2016
annual
1990  -  2016
Raw data are from the electronic version of the IMF’s International Financial Statistics. (IFS line 22A + line 22B + line 22C) / GDP. Local currency GDP is from IFS (line 99B..ZF or, if not available, line 99B.CZF).
percent
347.39
2016
annual
1991  -  2016
Demand, time and saving deposits in deposit money banks and other financial institutions as a share of GDP.
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Banking system: other indicators
Measure
Frequency
Latest value
Reference
Time coverage
percent
5.04
2018
annual
1990  -  2018
Lending rate is the bank rate that usually meets the short- and medium-term financing needs of the private sector. This rate is normally differentiated according to creditworthiness of borrowers and objectives of financing. The terms and conditions attached to these rates differ by country, however, limiting their comparability.
percent
1.26
2018
annual
1990  -  2018
Real interest rate is the lending interest rate adjusted for inflation as measured by the GDP deflator. The terms and conditions attached to lending rates differ by country, however, limiting their comparability.
points
7.00
2018
annual
2013  -  2018
Depth of credit information index measures rules affecting the scope, accessibility, and quality of credit information available through public or private credit registries. The index ranges from 0 to 8, with higher values indicating the availability of more credit information, from either a public registry or a private bureau, to facilitate lending decisions.
points
8.00
2018
annual
2013  -  2018
Strength of legal rights index measures the degree to which collateral and bankruptcy laws protect the rights of borrowers and lenders and thus facilitate lending. The index ranges from 0 to 12, with higher scores indicating that these laws are better designed to expand access to credit.
percent of total bank assets
92.00
2013
annual
2005  -  2013
Percentage of the total banking assets that are held by foreign banks. A foreign bank is a bank where 50 percent or more of its shares are owned by foreigners.
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Stock market development
Measure
Frequency
Latest value
Reference
Time coverage
percent
1052.15
2018
annual
1975  -  2018
Market capitalization (also known as market value) is the share price times the number of shares outstanding (including their several classes) for listed domestic companies. Investment funds, unit trusts, and companies whose only business goal is to hold shares of other listed companies are excluded. Data are end of year values.
billion USD
3819.22
2018
annual
1975  -  2018
Market capitalization (also known as market value) is the share price times the number of shares outstanding (including their several classes) for listed domestic companies. Investment funds, unit trusts, and companies whose only business goal is to hold shares of other listed companies are excluded. Data are end of year values.
percent
59.35
2018
annual
1975  -  2018
Turnover ratio is the value of domestic shares traded divided by their market capitalization. The value is annualized by multiplying the monthly average by 12.
companies
2161
2018
annual
1975  -  2018
Listed domestic companies, including foreign companies which are exclusively listed, are those which have shares listed on an exchange at the end of the year. Investment funds, unit trusts, and companies whose only business goal is to hold shares of other listed companies, such as holding companies and investment companies, regardless of their legal status, are excluded. A company with several classes of shares is counted once. Only companies admitted to listing on the exchange are included.
percent
624.47
2018
annual
1975  -  2018
The value of shares traded is the total number of shares traded, both domestic and foreign, multiplied by their respective matching prices. Figures are single counted (only one side of the transaction is considered). Companies admitted to listing and admitted to trading are included in the data. Data are end of year values.
percent
400.14
2016
annual
2000  -  2016
Ratio of assets of mutual funds to GDP. A mutual fund is a type of managed collective investment scheme that pools money from many investors to purchase securities. Data taken from a variety of sources such as Investment Company Institute and national sources.
percent
-11.68
2016
annual
1965  -  2016
Stock market return is the growth rate of annual average stock market index. Annual average stock market index is constructed by taking the average of the daily stock market indexes available at Bloomberg.
percent
65.59
2016
annual
1998  -  2016
Value of listed shares outside of the top ten largest companies to total value of all listed shares.
percent
74.58
2016
annual
1998  -  2016
Value of all traded shares outside of the top ten largest traded companies as a share of total value of all traded shares in a stock market exchange. WFE provides data on the exchange level. This variable is aggregated up to the country level by taking a simple average over exchanges.
percent
15.97
2017
annual
1971  -  2017
Stock price volatility is the average of the 360-day volatility of the national stock market index.
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Insurance, non-banks and pensions
Measure
Frequency
Latest value
Reference
Time coverage
percent
16.18
2016
annual
1992  -  2016
Ratio of life insurance premium volume to GDP. Premium volume is the insurer's direct premiums earned (if Property/Casualty) or received (if Life/Health) during the previous calendar year. Premium data are taken from various issues of Sigma reports (Swiss Re). Data on GDP in US dollars is from the electronic version of the World Development Indicators.
percent
0.88
2016
annual
1991  -  2016
Ratio of non-life insurance premium volume to GDP. Premium volume is the insurer's direct premiums earned (if Property/Casualty) or received (if Life/Health) during the previous calendar year. Premium data are taken from various issues of Sigma reports (Swiss Re). Data on GDP in US dollars is from the electronic version of the World Development Indicators.
percent
37.75
2016
annual
2001  -  2016
Ratio of assets of pension funds to GDP. A pension fund is any plan, fund, or scheme that provides retirement income. Data taken from a variety of sources such as OECD, AIOS, FIAP and national sources.
percent
53.79
2011
annual
2001  -  2011
Ratio of assets of insurance companies to GDP. Data taken from a variety of sources such as AXCO and national sources.
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Innovation measures
Measure
Frequency
Latest value
Reference
Time coverage
points
55.50
2019
annual
2011  -  2019
The Global Innovation Index includes two sub-indices: the Innovation Input Sub-Index and the Innovation Output Sub-Index. The first sub-index is based on five pillars: Institutions, Human capital and research, Infrastructure, Market sophistication, and Business sophistication. The second sub-index is based on two pillars: Knowledge and technology outputs and Creative outputs. Each pillar is divided into sub-pillars and each sub-pillar is composed of individual indicators.
percent
0.80
2017
annual
1998  -  2017
Gloss domestic expenditures on research and development (R&D), expressed as a percent of GDP. They include both capital and current expenditures in the four main sectors: Business enterprise, Government, Higher education and Private non-profit. R&D covers basic research, applied research, and experimental development.
percent
51.67
2017
annual
2000  -  2017
Information and communication technology goods exports include computers and peripheral equipment, communication equipment, consumer electronic equipment, electronic components, and other information and technology goods (miscellaneous).
million USD
161877.64
2018
annual
1992  -  2018
High-technology exports are products with high R&D intensity, such as in aerospace, computers, pharmaceuticals, scientific instruments, and electrical machinery. Data are in current U.S. dollars.
percent
31.70
2018
annual
1992  -  2018
High-technology exports are products with high R&D intensity, such as in aerospace, computers, pharmaceuticals, scientific instruments, and electrical machinery.
patent applications
324
2017
annual
1983  -  2017
Patent applications are worldwide patent applications filed through the Patent Cooperation Treaty procedure or with a national patent office for exclusive rights for an invention--a product or process that provides a new way of doing something or offers a new technical solution to a problem. A patent provides protection for the invention to the owner of the patent for a limited period, generally 20 years.
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Economic freedom indexes
Measure
Frequency
Latest value
Reference
Time coverage
points
93
2019
annual
1995  -  2019
The property rights index measures the degree to which a country’s laws protect private property rights and the degree to which its government enforces those laws. It also assesses the likelihood that private property will be expropriated and analyzes the independence of the judiciary, the existence of corruption within the judiciary, and the ability of individuals and businesses to enforce contracts. Higher index values denote more certain legal protection of property.
points
84
2019
annual
1995  -  2019
The score for the Freedom of corruption index is derived primarily from Transparency International’s Corruption Perceptions Index. For countries that are not covered in the CPI the freedom from corruption score is determined by using information from internationally recognized and reliable sources. Higher index values denote lower level of corruption.
points
93
2019
annual
1995  -  2019
The Fiscal freedom index measures the tax burden imposed by government. It is composed of three quantitative factors: the top marginal tax rate on individual income, the top marginal tax rate on corporate income, and the total tax burden as a percentage of GDP.
points
96
2019
annual
1995  -  2019
The Business freedom index is based on 10 indicators, using data from the World Bank’s Doing Business study: Starting a business-procedures (number), time (days), cost (% of income per capita), and minimum capital (% of income per capita); Obtaining a license—procedures (number), time (days), and cost (% of income per capita); Closing a business—time (years), cost (% of estate), and recovery rate (cents on the dollar).
points
89
2019
annual
2005  -  2019
The Labor freedom index is composed of six quantitative factors: ratio of minimum wage to the average value added per worker, hindrance to hiring additional workers, rigidity of hours, difficulty of firing redundant employees, legally mandated notice period, and mandatory severance pay. The index is based on data collected in connection with the World Bank’s Doing Business study.
points
86.40
2019
annual
1995  -  2019
The score for the Monetary freedom index is based on two factors: the weighted average inflation rate for the most recent three years and price controls. Higher index values denote price stability without microeconomic intervention.
points
95
2019
annual
1995  -  2019
The Trade freedom index is based on two indicators: the trade-weighted average tariff rate and non-tariff barriers (including quantity, price, regulatory, customs and investment restrictions, and direct government intervention).
points
90
2019
annual
1995  -  2019
The Investment freedom index evaluates a variety of investment restrictions (burdensome bureaucracy, restrictions on land ownership, expropriation of investments without fair compensation, foreign exchange controls, capital control, security problems, a lack of basic investment infrastructure, etc.). Points are deducted from the ideal score of 100 for each of the restrictions found in a country’s investment regime.
points
90
2019
annual
1995  -  2019
The Financial freedom index evaluates: the extent of government regulation of financial services, the degree of state intervention in banks and other financial firms through direct and indirect ownership, the extent of financial and capital market development, government influence on the allocation of credit and openness to foreign competition. Higher index values denote banking efficiency and independence from government control and interference in the financial sector.
index points
90
2019
annual
1995  -  2019
The Overall index of economic freedom has ten components grouped into four broad categories: Rule of Law; Limited Government; Regulatory Efficiency and Open Markets. The overall economic freedom is scored on a scale of 0 to 100, where 100 represents the maximum freedom.
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Health spending and outcomes
Measure
Frequency
Latest value
Reference
Time coverage
years
84.68
2017
annual
1960  -  2017
Life expectancy at birth indicates the number of years a newborn infant would live if prevailing patterns of mortality at the time of its birth were to stay the same throughout its life.
births per 1000 people
7.70
2017
annual
1960  -  2017
Crude birth rate indicates the number of live births occurring during the year, per 1,000 population estimated at midyear. Subtracting the crude death rate from the crude birth rate provides the rate of natural increase, which is equal to the rate of population change in the absence of migration.
deaths per 1000 people
6.30
2017
annual
1960  -  2017
Crude death rate indicates the number of deaths occurring during the year, per 1,000 population estimated at midyear. Subtracting the crude death rate from the crude birth rate provides the rate of natural increase, which is equal to the rate of population change in the absence of migration.
births per woman
1.13
2017
annual
1960  -  2017
Total fertility rate represents the number of children that would be born to a woman if she were to live to the end of her childbearing years and bear children in accordance with age-specific fertility rates of the specified year.
cases per 100,000 people
67.00
2017
annual
2000  -  2017
Incidence of tuberculosis is the estimated number of new and relapse tuberculosis cases arising in a given year, expressed as the rate per 100,000 population. All forms of TB are included, including cases in people living with HIV. Estimates for all years are recalculated as new information becomes available and techniques are refined, so they may differ from those published previously.
percent
100.0
2015
annual
2000  -  2015
Access to an improved water source, urban, refers to the percentage of the urban population using an improved drinking water source. The improved drinking water source includes piped water on premises (piped household water connection located inside the users' dwelling, plot or yard), and other improved drinking water sources (public taps or standpipes, tube wells or boreholes, protected dug wells, protected springs, and rainwater collection).
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Education spending and outcomes
Measure
Frequency
Latest value
Reference
Time coverage
percent
3.31
2017
annual
1971  -  2017
General government expenditure on education (current, capital, and transfers) is expressed as a percentage of GDP. It includes expenditure funded by transfers from international sources to government. General government usually refers to local, regional and central governments.
percent
17.84
2017
annual
1982  -  2017
General government expenditure on education (current, capital, and transfers) is expressed as a percentage of total general government expenditure on all sectors (including health, education, social services, etc.). It includes expenditure funded by transfers from international sources to government. General government usually refers to local, regional and central governments.
students per teacher
13.77
2017
annual
1971  -  2017
Primary school pupil-teacher ratio is the average number of pupils per teacher in primary school.
percent
102.18
2017
annual
1980  -  2017
Primary completion rate, or gross intake ratio to the last grade of primary education, is the number of new entrants (enrollments minus repeaters) in the last grade of primary education, regardless of age, divided by the population at the entrance age for the last grade of primary education. Data limitations preclude adjusting for students who drop out during the final year of primary education.
years
6
2018
annual
1970  -  2018
Primary school starting age is the age at which students would enter primary education, assuming they had started at the official entrance age for the lowest level of education, had studied full-time throughout and had progressed through the system without repeating or skipping a grade.
percent
0.98
2017
annual
1971  -  2017
Gender parity index for gross enrollment ratio in primary education is the ratio of girls to boys enrolled at primary level in public and private schools.
percent
0.96
2017
annual
1971  -  2017
Gender parity index for gross enrollment ratio in secondary education is the ratio of girls to boys enrolled at secondary level in public and private schools.
percent
1.11
2017
annual
1971  -  2017
Gender parity index for gross enrollment ratio in tertiary education is the ratio of women to men enrolled at tertiary level in public and private schools.
percent
107.13
2017
annual
1971  -  2017
Gross enrollment ratio is the ratio of total enrollment, regardless of age, to the population of the age group that officially corresponds to the level of education shown. Preprimary education refers to programs at the initial stage of organized instruction, designed primarily to introduce very young children to a school-type environment and to provide a bridge between home and school.
percent
106.81
2017
annual
1971  -  2017
Gross enrollment ratio is the ratio of total enrollment, regardless of age, to the population of the age group that officially corresponds to the level of education shown. Primary education provides children with basic reading, writing, and mathematics skills along with an elementary understanding of such subjects as history, geography, natural science, social science, art, and music.
percent
104.44
2017
annual
1971  -  2017
Gross enrollment ratio is the ratio of total enrollment, regardless of age, to the population of the age group that officially corresponds to the level of education shown. Secondary education completes the provision of basic education that began at the primary level, and aims at laying the foundations for lifelong learning and human development, by offering more subject- or skill-oriented instruction using more specialized teachers.
percent
73.76
2017
annual
1971  -  2017
Gross enrollment ratio is the ratio of total enrollment, regardless of age, to the population of the age group that officially corresponds to the level of education shown. Tertiary education, whether or not to an advanced research qualification, normally requires, as a minimum condition of admission, the successful completion of education at the secondary level.
percent
96.89
2017
annual
1998  -  2017
Trained teachers in primary education are the percentage of primary school teachers who have received the minimum organized teacher training (pre-service or in-service) required for teaching in a given country.
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Globalization indexes
Measure
Frequency
Latest value
Reference
Time coverage
points
67.69
2016
annual
1970  -  2016
The overall index of globalization covers the economic, social, and political dimensions of globalization. Higher values denote greater globalization.
points
88.10
2016
annual
1970  -  2016
Economic globalization has two dimensions: actual economic flows and restrictions to trade and capital. The sub-index on actual economic flows includes data on trade, FDI, and portfolio investment. The sub-index on restrictions takes into account hidden import barriers, mean tariff rates, taxes on international trade (as a share of current revenue), and an index of capital controls.
points
30.98
2016
annual
1970  -  2016
The degree of political globalization is determined by the number of embassies and high commissions in a country, the number of international organizations to which the country is a member, the number of UN peace missions a country participated in, and the number of treaties signed between two or more states.
points
84.98
2016
annual
1970  -  2016
Social globalization has three dimensions: personal contacts, information flows, and cultural proximity. The sub-index on personal contacts includes international telecom traffic, degree of tourism, transfers, foreign population, and number of international letters. The sub-index on information flows includes number of internet users, share of households with a television set, and trade in newspapers. The sub-index on cultural proximity includes trade in books and number of McDonald’s restaurants and Ikea located in a country.
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Shares of world totals
Measure
Frequency
Latest value
Reference
Time coverage
percent
0.10
2017
annual
1960  -  2017
The population share of a particular country is measured as its population as percent of the total world population in a given year. Total population is based on the de facto definition of population, which counts all residents regardless of legal status or citizenship--except for refugees not permanently settled in the country of asylum, who are generally considered part of the population of their country of origin. The values shown are midyear estimates.
percent
0.43
2017
annual
1980  -  2017
We calculated the world GDP as the sum of the GDP of all countries expressed in current USD. The share of GDP is the GDP of a particular country as percent of the world GDP. GDP at purchaser's prices is the sum of gross value added by all resident producers in the economy plus any product taxes and minus any subsidies not included in the value of the products. It is calculated without making deductions for depreciation of fabricated assets or for depletion and degradation of natural resources. Data are in current U.S. dollars. Dollar figures for GDP are converted from domestic currencies using single year official exchange rates. For a few countries where the official exchange rate does not reflect the rate effectively applied to actual foreign exchange transactions, an alternative conversion factor is used.
percent
2.88
2017
annual
1990  -  2017
The share of world exports equals the exports of a particular country as percent of the total exports of all countries around the world. Exports of goods and services represent the value of all goods and other market services provided to the rest of the world. They include the value of merchandise, freight, insurance, transport, travel, royalties, license fees, and other services, such as communication, construction, financial, information, business, personal, and government services. They exclude compensation of employees and investment income (formerly called factor services) and transfer payments. Data are in current U.S. dollars.
percent
2.94
2017
annual
1990  -  2017
The share of world exports equals the exports of a particular country as percent of the total exports of all countries around the world. Imports of goods and services represent the value of all goods and other market services received from the rest of the world. They include the value of merchandise, freight, insurance, transport, travel, royalties, license fees, and other services, such as communication, construction, financial, information, business, personal, and government services. They exclude compensation of employees and investment income (formerly called factor services) and transfer payments. Data are in current U.S. dollars.
percent
6.27
2017
annual
1998  -  2017
Foreign direct investment refers to direct investment equity flows in the reporting economy. It is the sum of equity capital, reinvestment of earnings, and other capital. Direct investment is a category of cross-border investment associated with a resident in one economy having control or a significant degree of influence on the management of an enterprise that is resident in another economy. Ownership of 10 percent or more of the ordinary shares of voting stock is the criterion for determining the existence of a direct investment relationship. Data are in current U.S. dollars.
percent
0.00
2017
annual
1980  -  2017
The share of world oil reserves is calculated as the proven oil reserves of a country as percent of the total proven oil reserves for the world.
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Economic structure
Measure
Frequency
Latest value
Reference
Time coverage
percent
7.21
2017
annual
2000  -  2017
Industry corresponds to ISIC divisions 10-45 and includes manufacturing (ISIC divisions 15-37). It comprises value added in mining, manufacturing (also reported as a separate subgroup), construction, electricity, water, and gas. Value added is the net output of a sector after adding up all outputs and subtracting intermediate inputs. It is calculated without making deductions for depreciation of fabricated assets or depletion and degradation of natural resources. The origin of value added is determined by the International Standard Industrial Classification (ISIC), revision 3 or 4.
percent
1.03
2017
annual
2000  -  2017
Manufacturing refers to industries belonging to ISIC divisions 15-37. Value added is the net output of a sector after adding up all outputs and subtracting intermediate inputs. It is calculated without making deductions for depreciation of fabricated assets or depletion and degradation of natural resources. The origin of value added is determined by the International Standard Industrial Classification (ISIC), revision 3. Note: For VAB countries, gross value added at factor cost is used as the denominator.
percent
88.60
2017
annual
2000  -  2017
Services correspond to ISIC divisions 50-99 and they include value added in wholesale and retail trade (including hotels and restaurants), transport, and government, financial, professional, and personal services such as education, health care, and real estate services. Also included are imputed bank service charges, import duties, and any statistical discrepancies noted by national compilers as well as discrepancies arising from rescaling. Value added is the net output of a sector after adding up all outputs and subtracting intermediate inputs. It is calculated without making deductions for depreciation of fabricated assets or depletion and degradation of natural resources. The industrial origin of value added is determined by the International Standard Industrial Classification (ISIC), revision 3 or 4.
billion USD
24.64
2017
annual
2000  -  2017
Industry corresponds to ISIC divisions 10-45 and includes manufacturing (ISIC divisions 15-37). It comprises value added in mining, manufacturing (also reported as a separate subgroup), construction, electricity, water, and gas. Value added is the net output of a sector after adding up all outputs and subtracting intermediate inputs. It is calculated without making deductions for depreciation of fabricated assets or depletion and degradation of natural resources. The origin of value added is determined by the International Standard Industrial Classification (ISIC), revision 3. Data are in current U.S. dollars.
billion USD
3.50
2017
annual
2000  -  2017
Manufacturing refers to industries belonging to ISIC divisions 15-37. Value added is the net output of a sector after adding up all outputs and subtracting intermediate inputs. It is calculated without making deductions for depreciation of fabricated assets or depletion and degradation of natural resources. The origin of value added is determined by the International Standard Industrial Classification (ISIC), revision 3. Data are in current U.S. dollars.
billion USD
287.23
2016
annual
2000  -  2016
Services correspond to ISIC divisions 50-99. They include value added in wholesale and retail trade (including hotels and restaurants), transport, and government, financial, professional, and personal services such as education, health care, and real estate services. Also included are imputed bank service charges, import duties, and any statistical discrepancies noted by national compilers as well as discrepancies arising from rescaling. Value added is the net output of a sector after adding up all outputs and subtracting intermediate inputs. It is calculated without making deductions for depreciation of fabricated assets or depletion and degradation of natural resources. The industrial origin of value added is determined by the International Standard Industrial Classification (ISIC), revision 3 or 4. Data are in constant 2010 U.S. dollars.
percent
26.00
2018
annual
1998  -  2018
Gross savings are calculated as gross national income less total consumption, plus net transfers.
billion USD
94.37
2018
annual
1998  -  2018
Gross savings are calculated as gross national income less total consumption, plus net transfers. Data are in current U.S. dollars.
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Crime statistics
Measure
Frequency
Latest value
Reference
Time coverage
kidnappings per 100,000 people
0.0
2013
annual
2003  -  2013
Number of kidnappings per 100,000 people per year.
robberies per 100,000 people
7
2013
annual
2003  -  2013
Number of robberies per 100,000 people per year.
prisoners per 100,000 people
113
2017
annual
2003  -  2017
Number of prisoners per 100,000 people.
thefts per 100,000 people
441
2013
annual
2003  -  2013
Number of thefts incidents per 100,000 people per year.
homicides per 100,000 people
0.3
2017
annual
1990  -  2017
Number of homicides per 100,000 people per year.
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Other indicators
Measure
Frequency
Latest value
Reference
Time coverage
index points
5.41
2018
annual
2008  -  2018
points
5.43
2019
annual
2013  -  2019
The Happiness ranking is part of the World Happiness Report. The country scores are based on a survey in which respondents evaluate the quality of their current lives on a scale of 0 to 10.
points
0.933
2017
annual
1980  -  2017
The Human Development Index measures three basic dimensions of human development: long and healthy life, knowledge, and a decent standard of living. Four indicators are used to calculate the index: life expectancy at birth, mean years of schooling, expected years of schooling, and gross national income per capita.
million
7.45
2018
annual
1960  -  2018
Total population is based on the de facto definition of population, which counts all residents regardless of legal status or citizenship. The values shown are midyear estimates.
percent
100.00
2018
annual
1960  -  2018
Urban population refers to people living in urban areas as defined by national statistical offices. The data are collected and smoothed by United Nations Population Division.
percent
16.88
2018
annual
1960  -  2018
Population ages 65 and above as a percentage of the total population. Population is based on the de facto definition of population, which counts all residents regardless of legal status or citizenship.
percent
11.90
2018
annual
1960  -  2018
Total population below the age of 14 as a percentage of the total population. Population is based on the de facto definition of population, which counts all residents regardless of legal status or citizenship.
percent
54.12
2018
annual
1960  -  2018
Female population is the percentage of the population that is female. Population is based on the de facto definition of population, which counts all residents regardless of legal status or citizenship.
sq. km
1050
2018
annual
1961  -  2018
Land area is a country's total area, excluding area under inland water bodies, national claims to continental shelf, and exclusive economic zones. In most cases the definition of inland water bodies includes major rivers and lakes.
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