* indicates monthly or quarterly data series
Germany: Shadow economy, percent of GDP: For that indicator, Medina and Schneider (2018) provides data for Germany from 1991 to 2015. The average value for Germany during that period was 11.97 percent with a minumum of 7.75 percent in 2015 and a maximum of 14.62 percent in 1996. See the global rankings for that indicator or use the country comparator to compare trends over time.
Definition: The shadow economy as percent of total annual GDP. Detailed methodology of the estimations can be obtained from the following International Monetary Fund working paper by Leandro Medina and Friedrich Schneider (2018): Shadow Economies Around the World: What Did We Learn Over the Last 20 Years?