Euro area Economic Indicators

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Main indicators
Measure
Frequency
Latest value
Reference
Time coverage
percent
-14.80
Q2/2020
quarterly
Q1/1996 - Q2/2020
The percent change in the Gross Domestic Product from the same quarter last year using constant prices.
percent
-0.30
Sep/2020
monthly
1/1997 - 9/2020
Percent change in the CPI from the same month last year.
percent
0.00
Jul/2020
monthly
1/2000 - 7/2020
The interest rate which best captures the monetary authorities' policy intentions. Different countries have different policy interest rates. The most common are the overnight lending rate, discount rate and repurchase rate (of different maturities). In the USA the policy rate is the federal funds rate. The federal funds rate is the interest rate at which depository institutions trade federal funds (balances held at Federal Reserve Banks) with each other overnight. The federal funds rate is essentially determined by the market but is influenced by the Federal Reserve through open market operations to reach the federal funds rate target. In the Euro area the policy rate is the main refinancing operations rate. The main refinancing operations (MRO) rate is the interest rate banks pay when they borrow money from the ECB for one week. When they do this, they have to provide collateral to guarantee that the money will be paid back. The policy interest rates determine the levels of the rest of the interest rates in the economy, since it is the price at which private agents (mostly private banks) obtain money from the central bank.
percent
8.10
Aug/2020
monthly
4/1998 - 8/2020
The unemployment rate represents the share of the labor force that is without work but available for and seeking employment.
million EUR
21771.00
Aug/2020
monthly
1/2008 - 8/2020
The current account balance is the sum of net exports of goods and services, net primary income, and net secondary income.
million EUR
-296120.60
Q2/2020
quarterly
Q1/2002 - Q2/2020
Revenue minus expenditure of the consolidated government.
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GDP and economic growth
Measure
Frequency
Latest value
Reference
Time coverage
percent
3.88
2019
annual
1983  -  2019
Annual percentage growth rate of GDP at market prices based on constant local currency. Aggregates are based on constant 2010 U.S. dollars. GDP is the sum of gross value added by all resident producers in the economy plus any product taxes and minus any subsidies not included in the value of the products. It is calculated without making deductions for depreciation of fabricated assets or for depletion and degradation of natural resources.
billion USD
544.9
2019
annual
1982  -  2019
GDP at purchaser's prices is the sum of gross value added by all resident producers in the economy plus any product taxes and minus any subsidies not included in the value of the products. It is calculated without making deductions for depreciation of fabricated assets or for depletion and degradation of natural resources. Data are in constant 2010 U.S. dollars. Dollar figures for GDP are converted from domestic currencies using 2010 official exchange rates. For a few countries where the official exchange rate does not reflect the rate effectively applied to actual foreign exchange transactions, an alternative conversion factor is used.
billion USD
521.27
2019
annual
1970  -  2019
GDP at purchaser's prices is the sum of gross value added by all resident producers in the economy plus any product taxes and minus any subsidies not included in the value of the products. It is calculated without making deductions for depreciation of fabricated assets or for depletion and degradation of natural resources. Data are in current U.S. dollars. Dollar figures for GDP are converted from domestic currencies using single year official exchange rates. For a few countries where the official exchange rate does not reflect the rate effectively applied to actual foreign exchange transactions, an alternative conversion factor is used.
USD
779.82
2019
annual
1970  -  2019
GDP per capita is gross domestic product divided by midyear population. GDP is the sum of gross value added by all resident producers in the economy plus any product taxes and minus any subsidies not included in the value of the products. It is calculated without making deductions for depreciation of fabricated assets or for depletion and degradation of natural resources. Data are in current U.S. dollars.
USD
2459.76
2019
annual
1990  -  2019
GDP per capita based on purchasing power parity (PPP). PPP GDP is gross domestic product converted to international dollars using purchasing power parity rates. An international dollar has the same purchasing power over GDP as the U.S. dollar has in the United States. GDP at purchaser's prices is the sum of gross value added by all resident producers in the economy plus any product taxes and minus any subsidies not included in the value of the products. It is calculated without making deductions for depreciation of fabricated assets or for depletion and degradation of natural resources. Data are in constant 2011 international dollars.
USD
815.20
2019
annual
1982  -  2019
GDP per capita is gross domestic product divided by midyear population. GDP is the sum of gross value added by all resident producers in the economy plus any product taxes and minus any subsidies not included in the value of the products. It is calculated without making deductions for depreciation of fabricated assets or for depletion and degradation of natural resources. Data are in constant 2010 U.S. dollars.
percent
-14.80
Q2/2020
quarterly
Q1/1996 - Q2/2020
The percent change in the Gross Domestic Product from the same quarter last year using constant prices.
percent
-11.80
Q2/2020
quarterly
Q2/1995 - Q2/2020
The percent change in the Gross Domestic Product from the previous quarter using constant prices. Data are seasonally adjusted.
billion EUR
2590.74
Q2/2020
quarterly
Q1/1995 - Q2/2020
The Gross Domestic Product (GDP) is the sum of the gross value added by all resident producers in the economy plus any product taxes and minus any subsidies not included in the value of the products. The data are in billion local currency units using current prices.
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Business cycle indicators
Measure
Frequency
Latest value
Reference
Time coverage
percent
-7.20
Aug/2020
monthly
1/1992 - 8/2020
The indicator shows the percent change in the index of industrial production from the same month last year. Industrial production includes mining and quarrying, manufacturing, and electricity production.
index points
113.40
Aug/2020
monthly
1/2000 - 8/2020
The retail sales index is an aggregated measure of the sales of retail goods over a stated period. Because retail sales are a measure of consumer demand for finished goods, they are a leading macroeconomic indicator of the pulse of an economy and its projected path toward expansion or contraction. The retail sales index measures only the volume changes, i.e. price level changes are excluded.
percent
4.04
Aug/2020
monthly
1/2001 - 8/2020
The retail sales Y-on-Y is an aggregated measure of the sales of retail goods over a stated period. Because retail sales are a measure of consumer demand for finished goods, they are a leading macroeconomic indicator of the pulse of an economy and its projected path toward expansion or contraction. Retail sales Y-on-Y is calculated as the percent change in the Retail sales index from the same month the previous year. The Retail sales Y-on-Y measures only volume changes, i.e. price level changes are excluded.
index point
119.21
Q4/2019
quarterly
Q1/1975 - Q4/2019
A house price index (HPI) measures the price changes of residential housing as a percentage change from some specific start date (which has HPI of 100).
percent
3.76
Q1/2020
quarterly
Q1/1988 - Q1/2020
Real residential property price measures the year-on-year percent change of property prices over time excluding the corresponding Y-o-Y inflation.
points
-10.86
Sep/2020
monthly
1/1996 - 9/2020
The business survey indicator provides information on the amount of optimism or pessimism that business managers feel about the prospects of their companies, based upon opinion surveys on developments in production, orders and stocks of finished goods and the general economic situation of the company. It can be used to monitor output growth and to anticipate turning points in economic activity.
points
-13.90
Sep/2020
monthly
1/1985 - 9/2020
The consumer survey contains standardized questions about the financial situation of households, general economic situation, inflation, unemployment, saving, intentions of making major purchases on durable goods or purchasing or building a home or buying a car. The survey gives an opportunity to analyze the tendencies in the development of public opinions on significant economic phenomena in the country.
index points
50.40
Sep/2020
monthly
3/2019 - 9/2020
The composite Purchasing Managers’ Index (PMI) is an indicator of economic health for manufacturing and service sectors. The purpose of the PMI is to provide information about current business conditions to company decision makers, analysts and purchasing managers. Each country PMI survey for the manufacturing or service sector is based on questionnaire responses from panels of senior purchasing executives (or similar) at over 400 companies. The composite PMI is a number from 0 to 100. A PMI above 50 represents an expansion when compared with the previous month. A PMI reading under 50 represents a contraction, and a reading at 50 indicates no change.
index points
53.70
Sep/2020
monthly
4/2019 - 9/2020
The manufacturing Purchasing Managers Index (PMI) is an indicator of economic health for the manufacturing sector. The purpose of the PMI is to provide information about current business conditions to company decision makers, analysts and purchasing managers. Each country PMI survey for the manufacturing sector is based on questionnaire responses that cover the following economic variables: output, new orders, new export orders, backlogs of work, output prices, input prices, suppliers’ delivery times, stocks of finished goods, quantity of purchases, stocks of purchases, employment, future output. The manufacturing PMI is a number from 0 to 100. A PMI above 50 represents an expansion when compared with the previous month. A PMI reading under 50 represents a contraction, and a reading at 50 indicates no change.
index points
48.00
Sep/2020
monthly
3/2019 - 9/2020
The services Purchasing Managers Index (PMI) is an indicator of economic health for the services sector. The purpose of the PMI is to provide information about current business conditions to company decision makers, analysts and purchasing managers. Each country PMI survey for the services sector is based on questionnaire responses that cover the following economic variables: business activity, new business, backlogs of work, prices charged, input prices, employment, expectations for activity. The services PMI is a number from 0 to 100. A PMI above 50 represents an expansion when compared with the previous month. A PMI reading under 50 represents a contraction, and a reading at 50 indicates no change.
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Consumption and investment
Measure
Frequency
Latest value
Reference
Time coverage
percent
24.39
2017
annual
1986  -  2017
Gross capital formation (formerly gross domestic investment) consists of outlays on additions to the fixed assets of the economy plus net changes in the level of inventories. Fixed assets include land improvements (fences, ditches, drains, and so on); plant, machinery, and equipment purchases; and the construction of roads, railways, and the like, including schools, offices, hospitals, private residential dwellings, and commercial and industrial buildings. Inventories are stocks of goods held by firms to meet temporary or unexpected fluctuations in production or sales, and "work in progress." According to the 1993 SNA, net acquisitions of valuables are also considered capital formation.
percent
73.67
2017
annual
1994  -  2017
Household final consumption expenditure (formerly private consumption) is the market value of all goods and services, including durable products (such as cars, washing machines, and home computers), purchased by households. It excludes purchases of dwellings but includes imputed rent for owner-occupied dwellings. It also includes payments and fees to governments to obtain permits and licenses. Here, household consumption expenditure includes the expenditures of nonprofit institutions serving households, even when reported separately by the country. This item also includes any statistical discrepancy in the use of resources relative to the supply of resources.
billion EUR
1342.71
Q2/2020
quarterly
Q1/1995 - Q2/2020
The market value of all goods and services, including durable products, purchased by households.
percent
51.83
Q2/2020
quarterly
Q1/1995 - Q2/2020
Household Consumption as percent of GDP
percent
-15.37
Q2/2020
quarterly
Q1/1996 - Q2/2020
The percent change in Household Consumption from the same quarter last year.
billion EUR
551.62
Q2/2020
quarterly
Q1/1995 - Q2/2020
Gross fixed capital formation including land improvements; plant, machinery, and equipment purchases; and the construction of roads, railways, and the like, including schools, offices, hospitals, private residential dwellings, and commercial and industrial buildings.
percent
21.29
Q2/2020
quarterly
Q1/1995 - Q2/2020
Gross fixed capital formation including land improvements; plant, machinery, and equipment purchases; and the construction of roads, railways, and the like, including schools, offices, hospitals, private residential dwellings, and commercial and industrial buildings as percent of GDP
percent
-19.61
Q2/2020
quarterly
Q1/1996 - Q2/2020
The percent change in investment (Physical Capital Accumulation) from the same quarter last year.
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Money
Measure
Frequency
Latest value
Reference
Time coverage
percent
2.9
2019
annual
1989  -  2019
Inflation as measured by the consumer price index reflects the annual percentage change in the cost to the average consumer of acquiring a basket of goods and services that may be fixed or changed at specified intervals, such as yearly. The Laspeyres formula is generally used.
billion EUR
13340.67
Aug/2020
monthly
1/1980 - 8/2020
The money supply is the total amount of currency and other liquid instruments circulating in the economy. The indicator represents the broad money that include currency outside banks; demand, time, saving, and foreign currency deposits of resident sectors other than the central government; bank and traveler's checks; and other securities such as certificates of deposit and commercial paper.
index points
104.97
Sep/2020
monthly
1/1996 - 9/2020
The Consumer Price Index (CPI) measures the changes in the cost of a basket of goods and services consumed by the average urban household.
percent
0.09
Sep/2020
monthly
2/1996 - 9/2020
The percentage change in the CPI from one month to the next.
percent
-0.30
Sep/2020
monthly
1/1997 - 9/2020
Percent change in the CPI from the same month last year.
billion EUR
10777.78
Aug/2020
monthly
9/1997 - 8/2020
Private sector credit refers to the credit extended by commercial banks and other deposit-taking institutions (excluding central banks) to private non-financial firms and households. Included are all credit institutions: domestic and foreign owned as well as private and public ones.
billion EUR
4747.43
Aug/2020
monthly
9/1997 - 8/2020
Business credit includes credit extended by commercial banks and other deposit-taking institutions (excluding central banks) to private non-financial firms. Included are all credit institutions: domestic and foreign owned as well as private and public ones.
billion EUR
6030.35
Aug/2020
monthly
9/1997 - 8/2020
Household credit includes credit extended by commercial banks and other deposit-taking institutions (excluding central banks) to households. Included are all credit institutions: domestic and foreign owned as well as private and public ones.
billion EUR
4632.79
Aug/2020
monthly
9/1997 - 8/2020
Loans provided by commercial banks for the purchase of non-commercial real estate. In billion local currency units.
billion EUR
1397.56
Aug/2020
monthly
9/1997 - 8/2020
Loans provided by commercial banks to households and individuals for the purchase of goods and services, excluding real estate. In billion local currency units.
percent
0.17
Aug/2020
monthly
1/2000 - 8/2020
The deposit interest rate is the average interest rate on one year term deposits offered by the commercial banks to the household sector.
percent
1.72
Aug/2020
monthly
1/2003 - 8/2020
The business credit interest rate is the average interest rate on the loan products offered by commercial banks to non-financial corporations. The business credit is a credit specifically intended for business purposes including secured and unsecured business loans to small or large business with variable or fixed interest rate.
percent
1.84
Aug/2020
monthly
1/2003 - 8/2020
The mortgage credit interest rate is the average interest rate on mortgage loan products offered to individuals and households by the commercial banks in the country. The mortgage credit is a loan used to finance the purchase of real estate.
index points
100.84
Sep/2020
monthly
12/1986 - 9/2020
Share price indices are calculated from the prices of common shares of companies traded on national or foreign stock exchanges. They are usually determined by the stock exchange, using the closing daily values for the monthly data, and normally expressed as simple arithmetic averages of the daily data. A price index measures changes in the market capitalization of the basket of shares in the index. Share price indices reflect the corporate sector's underlying profit and growth record and also act like a barometer of investor confidence in the state of industry and the economy.
percent
0.00
Jul/2020
monthly
1/2000 - 7/2020
The interest rate which best captures the monetary authorities' policy intentions. Different countries have different policy interest rates. The most common are the overnight lending rate, discount rate and repurchase rate (of different maturities). In the USA the policy rate is the federal funds rate. The federal funds rate is the interest rate at which depository institutions trade federal funds (balances held at Federal Reserve Banks) with each other overnight. The federal funds rate is essentially determined by the market but is influenced by the Federal Reserve through open market operations to reach the federal funds rate target. In the Euro area the policy rate is the main refinancing operations rate. The main refinancing operations (MRO) rate is the interest rate banks pay when they borrow money from the ECB for one week. When they do this, they have to provide collateral to guarantee that the money will be paid back. The policy interest rates determine the levels of the rest of the interest rates in the economy, since it is the price at which private agents (mostly private banks) obtain money from the central bank.
percent
-9.00
Q1/2020
quarterly
Q1/2009 - Q1/2020
The credit-to-GDP gap is defined as the difference between the credit-to-GDP ratio and its long-run trend, and captures the build-up of excessive credit in a reduced form fashion.
Local Currency Units per USD
0.8486
Sep/2020
monthly
5/2019 - 9/2020
The amount of local currency units that can be exchanged for one USD. An increase (decrease) means USD appreciation (depreciation).
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Labor market
Measure
Frequency
Latest value
Reference
Time coverage
million people
261.13
2019
annual
1990  -  2019
Labor force comprises people ages 15 and older who supply labor for the production of goods and services during a specified period. It includes people who are currently employed and people who are unemployed but seeking work as well as first-time job-seekers. Not everyone who works is included, however. Unpaid workers, family workers, and students are often omitted, and some countries do not count members of the armed forces. Labor force size tends to vary during the year as seasonal workers enter and leave.
percent
4.91
2020
annual
1991  -  2020
Unemployment refers to the share of the labor force that is without work but available for and seeking employment.
percent
5.00
2020
annual
1991  -  2020
Unemployment refers to the share of the labor force that is without work but available for and seeking employment.
percent
4.85
2020
annual
1991  -  2020
Unemployment refers to the share of the labor force that is without work but available for and seeking employment.
percent
10.00
2020
annual
1991  -  2020
Youth unemployment refers to the share of the labor force ages 15-24 without work but available for and seeking employment.
percent
67.13
2019
annual
1990  -  2019
Labor force participation rate is the proportion of the population ages 15 and older that is economically active: all people who supply labor for the production of goods and services during a specified period.
percent
43.79
2020
annual
1990  -  2020
Female labor force as a percentage of the total show the extent to which women are active in the labor force. Labor force comprises people ages 15 and older who supply labor for the production of goods and services during a specified period.
percent
57.99
2019
annual
1990  -  2019
Labor force participation rate is the proportion of the population ages 15 and older that is economically active: all people who supply labor for the production of goods and services during a specified period.
percent
76.54
2019
annual
1990  -  2019
Labor force participation rate is the proportion of the population ages 15 and older that is economically active: all people who supply labor for the production of goods and services during a specified period.
million employed people
155.83
Q2/2020
quarterly
Q1/1995 - Q2/2020
The number of people, in millions, engaged in the economy as paid employees or as self-employed.
percent
8.10
Aug/2020
monthly
4/1998 - 8/2020
The unemployment rate represents the share of the labor force that is without work but available for and seeking employment.
index points
110.50
Q2/2020
quarterly
Q1/2001 - Q2/2020
The index reflects the level of the total compensation of employees in the economy. Labor costs are defined as core expenditure borne by employers for the purpose of employing staff. They include employee compensation, with wages and salaries in cash and in kind, employers' social security contributions and employment taxes regarded as labor costs minus any subsidies received.
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International trade and investment
Measure
Frequency
Latest value
Reference
Time coverage
percent
18.73
2017
annual
1994  -  2017
Exports of goods and services represent the value of all goods and other market services provided to the rest of the world. They include the value of merchandise, freight, insurance, transport, travel, royalties, license fees, and other services, such as communication, construction, financial, information, business, personal, and government services. They exclude compensation of employees and investment income (formerly called factor services) and transfer payments.
percent
30.36
2017
annual
1994  -  2017
Imports of goods and services represent the value of all goods and other market services received from the rest of the world. They include the value of merchandise, freight, insurance, transport, travel, royalties, license fees, and other services, such as communication, construction, financial, information, business, personal, and government services. They exclude compensation of employees and investment income (formerly called factor services) and transfer payments.
percent
3.37
2018
annual
1970  -  2018
Foreign direct investment are the net inflows of investment to acquire a lasting management interest (10 percent or more of voting stock) in an enterprise operating in an economy other than that of the investor. It is the sum of equity capital, reinvestment of earnings, other long-term capital, and short-term capital as shown in the balance of payments. This series shows net inflows (new investment inflows less disinvestment) in the reporting economy from foreign investors, and is divided by GDP.
million dollars (current)
-58.84
2019
annual
1970  -  2019
Portfolio equity includes net inflows from equity securities other than those recorded as direct investment and including shares, stocks, depository receipts (American or global), and direct purchases of shares in local stock markets by foreign investors. Data are in current U.S. dollars.
percent
-11.64
2017
annual
1994  -  2017
External balance on goods and services (formerly resource balance) equals exports of goods and services minus imports of goods and services (previously nonfactor services).
million USD
13245.68
2018
annual
1986  -  2018
Personal transfers consist of all current transfers in cash or in kind made or received by resident households to or from nonresident households. Personal transfers thus include all current transfers between resident and nonresident individuals. Data are in current U.S. dollars.
million EUR
21771.00
Aug/2020
monthly
1/2008 - 8/2020
The current account balance is the sum of net exports of goods and services, net primary income, and net secondary income.
million EUR
230443.00
Aug/2020
monthly
1/2008 - 8/2020
Exports comprises all transactions of goods and services (sales, barter, or gifts or grants) from residents of a country to non-residents.
billion EUR
909.58
Sep/2020
monthly
12/1999 - 9/2020
Foreign exchange reserves consist of foreign currency, deposits denominated in foreign currency, Monetary Gold, Special Drawing Rights (SDRs) and Reserve position in the International Monetary Fund (IMF). Foreign exchange reserves are held by monetary authorities to finance trade imbalances, check the impact of foreign exchange fluctuations and address other issues under the purview of the central bank.
million EUR
36570.00
Aug/2020
monthly
1/2008 - 8/2020
Foreign direct investment refers to direct investment equity flows in the reporting economy. It is the sum of equity capital, reinvestment of earnings, and other capital. Direct investment is a category of cross-border investment associated with a resident in one economy having control or a significant degree of influence on the management of an enterprise that is resident in another economy. Ownership of 10 percent or more of the ordinary shares of voting stock is the criterion for determining the existence of a direct investment relationship.
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Government spending and balances
Measure
Frequency
Latest value
Reference
Time coverage
percent
11.30
2017
annual
1994  -  2017
General government final consumption expenditure (formerly general government consumption) includes all government current expenditures for purchases of goods and services (including compensation of employees). It also includes most expenditures on national defense and security, but excludes government military expenditures that are part of government capital formation.
percent
84.10
2019
annual
1995  -  2019
Debt is the entire stock of direct government fixed-term contractual obligations to others outstanding on a particular date. It includes domestic and foreign liabilities such as currency and money deposits, securities other than shares, and loans. It is the gross amount of government liabilities reduced by the amount of equity and financial derivatives held by the government. Because debt is a stock rather than a flow, it is measured as of a given date, usually the last day of the fiscal year.
billion EUR
619.81
Q2/2020
quarterly
Q1/1995 - Q2/2020
Total spending by all levels of government but excluding public enterprises.
million EUR
-296120.60
Q2/2020
quarterly
Q1/2002 - Q2/2020
Revenue minus expenditure of the consolidated government.
percent
0.12
Sep/2020
monthly
1/1970 - 9/2020
Yield on a 10-year government bond is the anticipated return on such investment, expressed as an annual percentage of the original investment. The yield on a bond is based on both the purchase price of the bond and the interest promised – also known as the coupon payment. Although a bond’s coupon rate is usually fixed, its price fluctuates continuously in response to changes in interest rates in the economy, demand for the instrument, time to maturity, and credit quality of that particular bond. As a result, after bonds are issued, they trade at premiums or discounts to their face values until they mature and return to full face value. 10-year government bond is a debt security issued by the Central government with a residual maturity of 10 years. It is used as a benchmark and guide for interest rates on lending products.
Million local currency units EUR
10951661.60
Q2/2020
quarterly
Q1/2000 - Q2/2020
General government gross debt, also known as public debt, is the nominal (face) value of total gross debt outstanding at the end of the period and consolidated between and within the government subsectors. Only core debt instruments are included, defined here as comprising (i) currency and deposits; (ii) loans; and (iii) debt securities.
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Business environment
Measure
Frequency
Latest value
Reference
Time coverage
percent of per capita GNI
51.72
2019
annual
2003  -  2019
The indicator includes all official fees and fees for legal or professional services if such services are required by law. The company law, the commercial code, and specific regulations and fee schedules are used as sources for calculating costs. The indicator excludes bribes.
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Governance, institutions, corruption
Measure
Frequency
Latest value
Reference
Time coverage
percent
21.58
2019
annual
1997  -  2019
Women in parliaments are the percentage of parliamentary seats in a single or lower chamber held by women.
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Tax rates and revenue sources
Measure
Frequency
Latest value
Reference
Time coverage
percent
47.58
2019
annual
2005  -  2019
Total tax rate measures the amount of taxes and mandatory contributions payable by businesses after accounting for allowable deductions and exemptions as a share of commercial profits. Taxes withheld (such as personal income tax) or collected and remitted to tax authorities (such as value added taxes, sales taxes or goods and service taxes) are excluded.
hours
270
2019
annual
2005  -  2019
Time to prepare and pay taxes is the time, in hours per year, it takes to prepare, file, and pay (or withhold) three major types of taxes: the corporate income tax, the value added or sales tax, and labor taxes, including payroll taxes and social security contributions.
taxes
36
2019
annual
2005  -  2019
Tax payments by businesses are the total number of taxes paid by businesses, including electronic filing. The tax is counted as paid once a year even if payments are more frequent.
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External debt measures
Measure
Frequency
Latest value
Reference
Time coverage
percent
32.85
2019
annual
1986  -  2019
Total external debt stocks to gross national income. Total external debt is debt owed to nonresidents repayable in currency, goods, or services. Total external debt is the sum of public, publicly guaranteed, and private nonguaranteed long-term debt, use of IMF credit, and short-term debt. Short-term debt includes all debt having an original maturity of one year or less and interest in arrears on long-term debt. GNI (formerly GNP) is the sum of value added by all resident producers plus any product taxes (less subsidies) not included in the valuation of output plus net receipts of primary income (compensation of employees and property income) from abroad.
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Infrastructure and transport characteristics
Measure
Frequency
Latest value
Reference
Time coverage
percent
16.34
2017
annual
1990  -  2017
Internet users are individuals who have used the Internet (from any location) in the last 3 months. The Internet can be used via a computer, mobile phone, personal digital assistant, games machine, digital TV etc.
subscribers
2096621
2018
annual
2007  -  2018
Fixed broadband subscriptions refers to fixed subscriptions to high-speed access to the public Internet (a TCP/IP connection), at downstream speeds equal to, or greater than, 256 kbit/s. This includes cable modem, DSL, fiber-to-the-home/building, other fixed (wired)-broadband subscriptions, satellite broadband and terrestrial fixed wireless broadband. This total is measured irrespective of the method of payment. It excludes subscriptions that have access to data communications (including the Internet) via mobile-cellular networks. It should include fixed WiMAX and any other fixed wireless technologies. It includes both residential subscriptions and subscriptions for organizations.
percent
0.46
2018
annual
2007  -  2018
Fixed broadband subscriptions refers to fixed subscriptions to high-speed access to the public Internet (a TCP/IP connection), at downstream speeds equal to, or greater than, 256 kbit/s. This includes cable modem, DSL, fiber-to-the-home/building, other fixed (wired)-broadband subscriptions, satellite broadband and terrestrial fixed wireless broadband. This total is measured irrespective of the method of payment. It excludes subscriptions that have access to data communications (including the Internet) via mobile-cellular networks. It should include fixed WiMAX and any other fixed wireless technologies. It includes both residential subscriptions and subscriptions for organizations.
million subscribers
283.37
2018
annual
1960  -  2018
Mobile cellular telephone subscriptions are subscriptions to a public mobile telephone service that provide access to the PSTN using cellular technology. The indicator includes (and is split into) the number of postpaid subscriptions, and the number of active prepaid accounts (i.e. that have been used during the last three months). The indicator applies to all mobile cellular subscriptions that offer voice communications. It excludes subscriptions via data cards or USB modems, subscriptions to public mobile data services, private trunked mobile radio, telepoint, radio paging and telemetry services.
subscribers per 100 people
60.40
2018
annual
1960  -  2018
Mobile cellular telephone subscriptions are subscriptions to a public mobile telephone service that provide access to the PSTN using cellular technology. The indicator includes (and is split into) the number of postpaid subscriptions, and the number of active prepaid accounts (i.e. that have been used during the last three months). The indicator applies to all mobile cellular subscriptions that offer voice communications. It excludes subscriptions via data cards or USB modems, subscriptions to public mobile data services, private trunked mobile radio, telepoint, radio paging and telemetry services.
million passengers
18.44
2018
annual
1970  -  2018
Air passengers carried include both domestic and international aircraft passengers of air carriers registered in the country.
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Energy and environment
Measure
Frequency
Latest value
Reference
Time coverage
percent
76.24
2015
annual
1990  -  2015
Renewable energy consumption is the share of renewables energy in total final energy consumption.
million kWh
782.00
2015
annual
1971  -  2015
Electricity production from renewable sources, excluding hydroelectric, includes geothermal, solar, tides, wind, biomass, and biofuels.
kt
168203
2016
annual
1960  -  2016
Carbon dioxide emissions are those stemming from the burning of fossil fuels and the manufacture of cement. They include carbon dioxide produced during consumption of solid, liquid, and gas fuels and gas flaring.
metric tons
0.27
2016
annual
1960  -  2016
Carbon dioxide emissions are those stemming from the burning of fossil fuels and the manufacture of cement. They include carbon dioxide produced during consumption of solid, liquid, and gas fuels and gas flaring.
percent
-9.08
2014
annual
1971  -  2014
Net energy imports are estimated as energy use less production, both measured in oil equivalents. A negative value indicates that the country is a net exporter. Energy use refers to use of primary energy before transformation to other end-use fuels, which is equal to indigenous production plus imports and stock changes, minus exports and fuels supplied to ships and aircraft engaged in international transport.
percent
10.71
2018
annual
1970  -  2018
Total natural resources rents are the sum of oil rents, natural gas rents, coal rents (hard and soft), mineral rents, and forest rents.
percent
1.33
2018
annual
1971  -  2018
Oil rents are the difference between the value of crude oil production at world prices and total costs of production.
percent
0.10
2017
annual
1974  -  2017
Natural gas rents are the difference between the value of natural gas production at world prices and total costs of production.
percent
41.88
2018
annual
2000  -  2018
Access to electricity is the percentage of population with access to electricity. Electrification data are collected from industry, national surveys and international sources.
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Agriculture sector
Measure
Frequency
Latest value
Reference
Time coverage
percent
23.2
2016
annual
1990  -  2016
Forest area is land under natural or planted stands of trees of at least 5 meters in situ, whether productive or not, and excludes tree stands in agricultural production systems (for example, in fruit plantations and agroforestry systems) and trees in urban parks and gardens.
percent
39.60
2016
annual
1961  -  2016
Agricultural land refers to the share of land area that is arable, under permanent crops, and under permanent pastures. Arable land includes land defined by the FAO as land under temporary crops (double-cropped areas are counted once), temporary meadows for mowing or for pasture, land under market or kitchen gardens, and land temporarily fallow. Land abandoned as a result of shifting cultivation is excluded. Land under permanent crops is land cultivated with crops that occupy the land for long periods and need not be replanted after each harvest, such as cocoa, coffee, and rubber. This category includes land under flowering shrubs, fruit trees, nut trees, and vines, but excludes land under trees grown for wood or timber. Permanent pasture is land used for five or more years for forage, including natural and cultivated crops.
percent
59.12
2019
annual
1991  -  2019
Employment is defined as persons of working age who were engaged in any activity to produce goods or provide services for pay or profit, whether at work during the reference period or not at work due to temporary absence from a job, or to working-time arrangement. The agriculture sector consists of activities in agriculture, hunting, forestry and fishing, in accordance with division 1 (ISIC 2) or categories A-B (ISIC 3) or category A (ISIC 4).
percent
23.27
2018
annual
1988  -  2018
Agriculture corresponds to ISIC divisions 1-5 and includes forestry, hunting, and fishing, as well as cultivation of crops and livestock production. Value added is the net output of a sector after adding up all outputs and subtracting intermediate inputs. It is calculated without making deductions for depreciation of fabricated assets or depletion and degradation of natural resources. The origin of value added is determined by the International Standard Industrial Classification (ISIC), revision 3 or 4.
sq. km.
5920971
2016
annual
1961  -  2016
Agricultural land refers to the share of land area that is arable, under permanent crops, and under permanent pastures. Arable land includes land defined by the FAO as land under temporary crops (double-cropped areas are counted once), temporary meadows for mowing or for pasture, land under market or kitchen gardens, and land temporarily fallow. Land abandoned as a result of shifting cultivation is excluded. Land under permanent crops is land cultivated with crops that occupy the land for long periods and need not be replanted after each harvest, such as cocoa, coffee, and rubber. This category includes land under flowering shrubs, fruit trees, nut trees, and vines, but excludes land under trees grown for wood or timber. Permanent pasture is land used for five or more years for forage, including natural and cultivated crops.
index points
128.6
2014
annual
1961  -  2014
Crop production index shows agricultural production for each year relative to the base period 2004-2006. It includes all crops except fodder crops. Regional and income group aggregates for the FAO's production indexes are calculated from the underlying values in international dollars, normalized to the base period 2004-2006.
percent
8.7
2016
annual
1961  -  2016
Arable land includes land defined by the FAO as land under temporary crops (double-cropped areas are counted once), temporary meadows for mowing or for pasture, land under market or kitchen gardens, and land temporarily fallow. Land abandoned as a result of shifting cultivation is excluded.
kg per hectar
1379
2017
annual
1961  -  2017
Cereal yield, measured as kilograms per hectare of harvested land, includes wheat, rice, maize, barley, oats, rye, millet, sorghum, buckwheat, and mixed grains. Production data on cereals relate to crops harvested for dry grain only. Cereal crops harvested for hay or harvested green for food, feed, or silage and those used for grazing are excluded. The FAO allocates production data to the calendar year in which the bulk of the harvest took place. Most of a crop harvested near the end of a year will be used in the following year.
index points
120.3
2014
annual
1961  -  2014
Food production index covers food crops that are considered edible and that contain nutrients. Coffee and tea are excluded because, although edible, they have no nutritive value.
kg per hectare of arable land
10.4
2016
annual
2004  -  2016
Fertilizer consumption measures the quantity of plant nutrients used per unit of arable land. Fertilizer products cover nitrogenous, potash, and phosphate fertilizers (including ground rock phosphate). Traditional nutrients--animal and plant manures--are not included. For the purpose of data dissemination, FAO has adopted the concept of a calendar year (January to December). Some countries compile fertilizer data on a calendar year basis, while others are on a split-year basis. Arable land includes land defined by the FAO as land under temporary crops (double-cropped areas are counted once), temporary meadows for mowing or for pasture, land under market or kitchen gardens, and land temporarily fallow. Land abandoned as a result of shifting cultivation is excluded.
index points
99.7
2014
annual
1961  -  2014
Livestock production index includes meat and milk from all sources, dairy products such as cheese, and eggs, honey, raw silk, wool, and hides and skins.
sq. km
3167849.3
2016
annual
1990  -  2016
Forest area is land under natural or planted stands of trees of at least 5 meters in situ, whether productive or not, and excludes tree stands in agricultural production systems (for example, in fruit plantations and agroforestry systems) and trees in urban parks and gardens.
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Banking system access
Measure
Frequency
Latest value
Reference
Time coverage
ATMs per 100,000 adults
3.96
2018
annual
2005  -  2018
Number of ATMs per 100,000 adults. Automated teller machines are computerized telecommunications devices that provide clients of a financial institution with access to financial transactions in a public place.
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Banking system depth
Measure
Frequency
Latest value
Reference
Time coverage
percent
88.70
Q4/2019
quarterly
Q3/1997 - Q4/2019
Bank credit to the private non-financial sector expressed as percent of GDP.
percent
98.50
Q1/2020
quarterly
Q1/1999 - Q1/2020
Total credit is the amount of credit available to the government sector from financial institutions. It consists of the total amount of combined funds that are provided to the government by financial companies.
percent
90.30
Q1/2020
quarterly
Q3/1997 - Q1/2020
Total credit is the amount of credit available to the private non-financial sector. It consists of the total amount of combined funds that financial institutions provide to this sector.
percent
109.00
Q1/2020
quarterly
Q4/1997 - Q1/2020
Total credit to non-financial corporations refers to resources provided to the these corporations by financial institutions.
percent
58.20
Q1/2020
quarterly
Q1/1999 - Q1/2020
Total credit is the amount of credit available to households from financial institutions. It consists of the total amount of combined funds that are provided to individuals by financial companies.
percent
13.38
2018
annual
1963  -  2018
Domestic credit to private sector by banks refers to financial resources provided to the private sector by other depository corporations (deposit taking corporations except central banks), such as through loans, purchases of nonequity securities, and trade credits and other accounts receivable, that establish a claim for repayment. For some countries these claims include credit to public enterprises.
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Banking system: other indicators
Measure
Frequency
Latest value
Reference
Time coverage
points
2.29
2019
annual
2013  -  2019
Depth of credit information index measures rules affecting the scope, accessibility, and quality of credit information available through public or private credit registries. The index ranges from 0 to 8, with higher values indicating the availability of more credit information, from either a public registry or a private bureau, to facilitate lending decisions.
points
4.96
2019
annual
2013  -  2019
Strength of legal rights index measures the degree to which collateral and bankruptcy laws protect the rights of borrowers and lenders and thus facilitate lending. The index ranges from 0 to 12, with higher scores indicating that these laws are better designed to expand access to credit.
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Demographics
Measure
Frequency
Latest value
Reference
Time coverage
million
668.45
2019
annual
1960  -  2019
Total population is based on the de facto definition of population, which counts all residents regardless of legal status or citizenship. The values shown are midyear estimates.
percent
33.32
2019
annual
1960  -  2019
Urban population refers to people living in urban areas as defined by national statistical offices. The data are collected and smoothed by United Nations Population Division.
percent
3.28
2019
annual
1960  -  2019
Population ages 65 and above as a percentage of the total population. Population is based on the de facto definition of population, which counts all residents regardless of legal status or citizenship.
percent
41.81
2019
annual
1960  -  2019
Total population below the age of 14 as a percentage of the total population. Population is based on the de facto definition of population, which counts all residents regardless of legal status or citizenship.
percent
50.16
2019
annual
1960  -  2019
Female population is the percentage of the population that is female. Population is based on the de facto definition of population, which counts all residents regardless of legal status or citizenship.
percent
66.68
2019
annual
1960  -  2019
Rural population refers to people living in rural areas as defined by national statistical offices. It is calculated as the difference between total population and urban population.
percent
83.23
2019
annual
1960  -  2019
Age dependency ratio is the ratio of dependents--people younger than 15 or older than 64--to the working-age population--those ages 15-64. Data are shown as the proportion of dependents per 100 working-age population.
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Health spending and outcomes
Measure
Frequency
Latest value
Reference
Time coverage
USD
44.81
2017
annual
2000  -  2017
Current expenditures on health per capita in current US dollars. Estimates of current health expenditures include healthcare goods and services consumed during each year.
percent
5.70
2017
annual
2000  -  2017
Level of current health expenditure expressed as a percentage of GDP. Estimates of current health expenditures include healthcare goods and services consumed during each year. This indicator does not include capital health expenditures such as buildings, machinery, IT and stocks of vaccines for emergency or outbreaks.
years
63.50
2018
annual
1960  -  2018
Life expectancy at birth indicates the number of years a newborn infant would live if prevailing patterns of mortality at the time of its birth were to stay the same throughout its life.
births per 1000 people
34.62
2018
annual
1960  -  2018
Crude birth rate indicates the number of live births occurring during the year, per 1,000 population estimated at midyear. Subtracting the crude death rate from the crude birth rate provides the rate of natural increase, which is equal to the rate of population change in the absence of migration.
deaths per 1000 people
7.77
2018
annual
1960  -  2018
Crude death rate indicates the number of deaths occurring during the year, per 1,000 population estimated at midyear. Subtracting the crude death rate from the crude birth rate provides the rate of natural increase, which is equal to the rate of population change in the absence of migration.
births per woman
4.60
2018
annual
1960  -  2018
Total fertility rate represents the number of children that would be born to a woman if she were to live to the end of her childbearing years and bear children in accordance with age-specific fertility rates of the specified year.
percent
1.91
2019
annual
1990  -  2019
Prevalence of HIV refers to the percentage of people ages 15-49 who are infected with HIV.
cases per 100,000 people
206.00
2018
annual
2000  -  2018
Incidence of tuberculosis is the estimated number of new and relapse tuberculosis cases arising in a given year, expressed as the rate per 100,000 population. All forms of TB are included, including cases in people living with HIV. Estimates for all years are recalculated as new information becomes available and techniques are refined, so they may differ from those published previously.
percent
14.8
2017
annual
2000  -  2017
The percentage of people using drinking water from an improved source that is accessible on premises, available when needed and free from faecal and priority chemical contamination. Improved water sources include piped water, boreholes or tubewells, protected dug wells, protected springs, and packaged or delivered water.
percent
51.7
2017
annual
2000  -  2017
Access to an improved water source, urban, refers to the percentage of the urban population using an improved drinking water source. The improved drinking water source includes piped water on premises (piped household water connection located inside the users' dwelling, plot or yard), and other improved drinking water sources (public taps or standpipes, tube wells or boreholes, protected dug wells, protected springs, and rainwater collection).
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Education spending and outcomes
Measure
Frequency
Latest value
Reference
Time coverage
percent
3.23
2018
annual
1999  -  2018
General government expenditure on education (current, capital, and transfers) is expressed as a percentage of GDP. It includes expenditure funded by transfers from international sources to government. General government usually refers to local, regional and central governments.
percent
16.28
2018
annual
2000  -  2018
General government expenditure on education (current, capital, and transfers) is expressed as a percentage of total general government expenditure on all sectors (including health, education, social services, etc.). It includes expenditure funded by transfers from international sources to government. General government usually refers to local, regional and central governments.
percent
63.18
2018
annual
1985  -  2018
Adult literacy rate is the percentage of people ages 15 and above who can both read and write with understanding a short simple statement about their everyday life.
percent
72.30
2018
annual
1984  -  2018
Youth literacy rate is the percentage of people ages 15-24 who can both read and write with understanding a short simple statement about their everyday life.
percent
78.81
2018
annual
1984  -  2018
Youth literacy rate is the percentage of people ages 15-24 who can both read and write with understanding a short simple statement about their everyday life.
percent
75.56
2018
annual
1984  -  2018
Youth literacy rate is the percentage of people ages 15-24 who can both read and write with understanding a short simple statement about their everyday life.
students per teacher
39.83
2018
annual
1970  -  2018
Primary school pupil-teacher ratio is the average number of pupils per teacher in primary school.
percent
67.35
2018
annual
1970  -  2018
Primary completion rate, or gross intake ratio to the last grade of primary education, is the number of new entrants (enrollments minus repeaters) in the last grade of primary education, regardless of age, divided by the population at the entrance age for the last grade of primary education. Data limitations preclude adjusting for students who drop out during the final year of primary education.
percent
0.94
2018
annual
1970  -  2018
Gender parity index for gross enrollment ratio in primary education is the ratio of girls to boys enrolled at primary level in public and private schools.
percent
0.84
2018
annual
1970  -  2018
Gender parity index for gross enrollment ratio in secondary education is the ratio of girls to boys enrolled at secondary level in public and private schools.
percent
0.62
2018
annual
1970  -  2018
Gender parity index for gross enrollment ratio in tertiary education is the ratio of women to men enrolled at tertiary level in public and private schools.
percent
23.92
2018
annual
1972  -  2018
Gross enrollment ratio is the ratio of total enrollment, regardless of age, to the population of the age group that officially corresponds to the level of education shown. Preprimary education refers to programs at the initial stage of organized instruction, designed primarily to introduce very young children to a school-type environment and to provide a bridge between home and school.
percent
102.73
2018
annual
1970  -  2018
Gross enrollment ratio is the ratio of total enrollment, regardless of age, to the population of the age group that officially corresponds to the level of education shown. Primary education provides children with basic reading, writing, and mathematics skills along with an elementary understanding of such subjects as history, geography, natural science, social science, art, and music.
percent
41.23
2018
annual
1970  -  2018
Gross enrollment ratio is the ratio of total enrollment, regardless of age, to the population of the age group that officially corresponds to the level of education shown. Secondary education completes the provision of basic education that began at the primary level, and aims at laying the foundations for lifelong learning and human development, by offering more subject- or skill-oriented instruction using more specialized teachers.
percent
8.88
2018
annual
1970  -  2018
Gross enrollment ratio is the ratio of total enrollment, regardless of age, to the population of the age group that officially corresponds to the level of education shown. Tertiary education, whether or not to an advanced research qualification, normally requires, as a minimum condition of admission, the successful completion of education at the secondary level.
percent
71.73
2018
annual
2000  -  2018
Trained teachers in primary education are the percentage of primary school teachers who have received the minimum organized teacher training (pre-service or in-service) required for teaching in a given country.
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Economic structure
Measure
Frequency
Latest value
Reference
Time coverage
percent
26.82
2018
annual
1988  -  2018
Industry corresponds to ISIC divisions 10-45 and includes manufacturing (ISIC divisions 15-37). It comprises value added in mining, manufacturing (also reported as a separate subgroup), construction, electricity, water, and gas. Value added is the net output of a sector after adding up all outputs and subtracting intermediate inputs. It is calculated without making deductions for depreciation of fabricated assets or depletion and degradation of natural resources. The origin of value added is determined by the International Standard Industrial Classification (ISIC), revision 3 or 4.
percent
7.99
2014
annual
1990  -  2014
Manufacturing refers to industries belonging to ISIC divisions 15-37. Value added is the net output of a sector after adding up all outputs and subtracting intermediate inputs. It is calculated without making deductions for depreciation of fabricated assets or depletion and degradation of natural resources. The origin of value added is determined by the International Standard Industrial Classification (ISIC), revision 3. Note: For VAB countries, gross value added at factor cost is used as the denominator.
percent
37.71
2018
annual
1994  -  2018
Services correspond to ISIC divisions 50-99 and they include value added in wholesale and retail trade (including hotels and restaurants), transport, and government, financial, professional, and personal services such as education, health care, and real estate services. Also included are imputed bank service charges, import duties, and any statistical discrepancies noted by national compilers as well as discrepancies arising from rescaling. Value added is the net output of a sector after adding up all outputs and subtracting intermediate inputs. It is calculated without making deductions for depreciation of fabricated assets or depletion and degradation of natural resources. The industrial origin of value added is determined by the International Standard Industrial Classification (ISIC), revision 3 or 4.
percent
17.37
2015
annual
2015  -  2015
Gross savings are calculated as gross national income less total consumption, plus net transfers.
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Other indicators
Measure
Frequency
Latest value
Reference
Time coverage
billion USD (constant 2011 prices)
4700101.78
2018
annual
1970  -  2018
Military spending includes expenditure on peacekeeping, defense ministries, paramilitary forces, and military space activities. Also: military and civil personnel, including retirement pensions; operations and maintenance; procurement; military research and development; and military aid. Defense and current expenditure for past military activities, such as for veterans' benefits, demobilization, conversion, and weapon destruction, are not included.
percent
1.26
2018
annual
1964  -  2018
Military spending includes expenditure on peacekeeping, defense ministries, paramilitary forces, and military space activities. Also: military and civil personnel, including retirement pensions; operations and maintenance; procurement; military research and development; and military aid. Defense and current expenditure for past military activities, such as for veterans' benefits, demobilization, conversion, and weapon destruction, are not included.
sq. km
12509460
2018
annual
1961  -  2018
Land area is a country's total area, excluding area under inland water bodies, national claims to continental shelf, and exclusive economic zones. In most cases the definition of inland water bodies includes major rivers and lakes.
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