Euro area Economic Indicators

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Main indicators
Measure
Frequency
Latest value
Reference
Time coverage
percent
-1.30
Q1/2021
quarterly
Q1/1996 - Q1/2021
The percent change in the Gross Domestic Product from the same quarter last year using constant prices.
percent
1.90
Jun/2021
monthly
1/1997 - 6/2021
Percent change in the CPI from the same month last year.
percent
7.70
May/2021
monthly
4/1998 - 5/2021
The unemployment rate represents the share of the labor force that is without work but available for and seeking employment.
million EUR
4305.00
May/2021
monthly
1/2008 - 5/2021
The current account balance is the sum of net exports of goods and services, net primary income, and net secondary income.
million EUR
-256878.90
Q1/2021
quarterly
Q1/2002 - Q1/2021
Revenue minus expenditure of the consolidated government.
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GDP and economic growth
Measure
Frequency
Latest value
Reference
Time coverage
percent
1.29
2019
annual
1961  -  2019
Annual percentage growth rate of GDP at market prices based on constant local currency. Aggregates are based on constant 2010 U.S. dollars. GDP is the sum of gross value added by all resident producers in the economy plus any product taxes and minus any subsidies not included in the value of the products. It is calculated without making deductions for depreciation of fabricated assets or for depletion and degradation of natural resources.
billion USD
13182.6
2020
annual
1960  -  2020
GDP at purchaser's prices is the sum of gross value added by all resident producers in the economy plus any product taxes and minus any subsidies not included in the value of the products. It is calculated without making deductions for depreciation of fabricated assets or for depletion and degradation of natural resources. Data are in constant 2010 U.S. dollars. Dollar figures for GDP are converted from domestic currencies using 2010 official exchange rates. For a few countries where the official exchange rate does not reflect the rate effectively applied to actual foreign exchange transactions, an alternative conversion factor is used.
billion USD
13356.06
2019
annual
1960  -  2019
GDP at purchaser's prices is the sum of gross value added by all resident producers in the economy plus any product taxes and minus any subsidies not included in the value of the products. It is calculated without making deductions for depreciation of fabricated assets or for depletion and degradation of natural resources. Data are in current U.S. dollars. Dollar figures for GDP are converted from domestic currencies using single year official exchange rates. For a few countries where the official exchange rate does not reflect the rate effectively applied to actual foreign exchange transactions, an alternative conversion factor is used.
USD
38976.34
2019
annual
1960  -  2019
GDP per capita is gross domestic product divided by midyear population. GDP is the sum of gross value added by all resident producers in the economy plus any product taxes and minus any subsidies not included in the value of the products. It is calculated without making deductions for depreciation of fabricated assets or for depletion and degradation of natural resources. Data are in current U.S. dollars.
USD
46861.83
2019
annual
1990  -  2019
GDP per capita based on purchasing power parity (PPP). PPP GDP is gross domestic product converted to international dollars using purchasing power parity rates. An international dollar has the same purchasing power over GDP as the U.S. dollar has in the United States. GDP at purchaser's prices is the sum of gross value added by all resident producers in the economy plus any product taxes and minus any subsidies not included in the value of the products. It is calculated without making deductions for depreciation of fabricated assets or for depletion and degradation of natural resources. Data are in constant 2011 international dollars.
USD
38438.75
2020
annual
1960  -  2020
GDP per capita is gross domestic product divided by midyear population. GDP is the sum of gross value added by all resident producers in the economy plus any product taxes and minus any subsidies not included in the value of the products. It is calculated without making deductions for depreciation of fabricated assets or for depletion and degradation of natural resources. Data are in constant 2010 U.S. dollars.
percent
-1.30
Q1/2021
quarterly
Q1/1996 - Q1/2021
The percent change in the Gross Domestic Product from the same quarter last year using constant prices.
percent
-0.30
Q1/2021
quarterly
Q2/1995 - Q1/2021
The percent change in the Gross Domestic Product from the previous quarter using constant prices. Data are seasonally adjusted.
billion EUR
2859.26
Q1/2021
quarterly
Q1/1995 - Q1/2021
The Gross Domestic Product (GDP) is the sum of the gross value added by all resident producers in the economy plus any product taxes and minus any subsidies not included in the value of the products. The data are in billion local currency units using current prices.
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Business cycle indicators
Measure
Frequency
Latest value
Reference
Time coverage
percent
20.50
May/2021
monthly
1/1992 - 5/2021
The indicator shows the percent change in the index of industrial production from the same month last year. Industrial production includes mining and quarrying, manufacturing, and electricity production.
index points
113.70
May/2021
monthly
1/2000 - 5/2021
The retail sales index is an aggregated measure of the sales of retail goods over a stated period. Because retail sales are a measure of consumer demand for finished goods, they are a leading macroeconomic indicator of the pulse of an economy and its projected path toward expansion or contraction. The retail sales index measures only the volume changes, i.e. price level changes are excluded.
percent
8.70
May/2021
monthly
1/2001 - 5/2021
The retail sales Y-on-Y is an aggregated measure of the sales of retail goods over a stated period. Because retail sales are a measure of consumer demand for finished goods, they are a leading macroeconomic indicator of the pulse of an economy and its projected path toward expansion or contraction. Retail sales Y-on-Y is calculated as the percent change in the Retail sales index from the same month the previous year. The Retail sales Y-on-Y measures only volume changes, i.e. price level changes are excluded.
points
13.66
Jun/2021
monthly
1/1996 - 6/2021
The business survey indicator provides information on the amount of optimism or pessimism that business managers feel about the prospects of their companies, based upon opinion surveys on developments in production, orders and stocks of finished goods and the general economic situation of the company. It can be used to monitor output growth and to anticipate turning points in economic activity.
points
-3.30
Jun/2021
monthly
1/1985 - 6/2021
The consumer survey contains standardized questions about the financial situation of households, general economic situation, inflation, unemployment, saving, intentions of making major purchases on durable goods or purchasing or building a home or buying a car. The survey gives an opportunity to analyze the tendencies in the development of public opinions on significant economic phenomena in the country.
index points
59.50
Jun/2021
monthly
3/2019 - 6/2021
The composite Purchasing Managers’ Index (PMI) is an indicator of economic health for manufacturing and service sectors. The purpose of the PMI is to provide information about current business conditions to company decision makers, analysts and purchasing managers. Each country PMI survey for the manufacturing or service sector is based on questionnaire responses from panels of senior purchasing executives (or similar) at over 400 companies. The composite PMI is a number from 0 to 100. A PMI above 50 represents an expansion when compared with the previous month. A PMI reading under 50 represents a contraction, and a reading at 50 indicates no change.
index points
63.40
Jun/2021
monthly
4/2019 - 6/2021
The manufacturing Purchasing Managers Index (PMI) is an indicator of economic health for the manufacturing sector. The purpose of the PMI is to provide information about current business conditions to company decision makers, analysts and purchasing managers. Each country PMI survey for the manufacturing sector is based on questionnaire responses that cover the following economic variables: output, new orders, new export orders, backlogs of work, output prices, input prices, suppliers’ delivery times, stocks of finished goods, quantity of purchases, stocks of purchases, employment, future output. The manufacturing PMI is a number from 0 to 100. A PMI above 50 represents an expansion when compared with the previous month. A PMI reading under 50 represents a contraction, and a reading at 50 indicates no change.
index points
58.30
Jun/2021
monthly
3/2019 - 6/2021
The services Purchasing Managers Index (PMI) is an indicator of economic health for the services sector. The purpose of the PMI is to provide information about current business conditions to company decision makers, analysts and purchasing managers. Each country PMI survey for the services sector is based on questionnaire responses that cover the following economic variables: business activity, new business, backlogs of work, prices charged, input prices, employment, expectations for activity. The services PMI is a number from 0 to 100. A PMI above 50 represents an expansion when compared with the previous month. A PMI reading under 50 represents a contraction, and a reading at 50 indicates no change.
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Consumption and investment
Measure
Frequency
Latest value
Reference
Time coverage
percent
21.10
2020
annual
1970  -  2020
Gross capital formation (formerly gross domestic investment) consists of outlays on additions to the fixed assets of the economy plus net changes in the level of inventories. Fixed assets include land improvements (fences, ditches, drains, and so on); plant, machinery, and equipment purchases; and the construction of roads, railways, and the like, including schools, offices, hospitals, private residential dwellings, and commercial and industrial buildings. Inventories are stocks of goods held by firms to meet temporary or unexpected fluctuations in production or sales, and "work in progress." According to the 1993 SNA, net acquisitions of valuables are also considered capital formation.
percent
54.13
2019
annual
1970  -  2019
Household final consumption expenditure (formerly private consumption) is the market value of all goods and services, including durable products (such as cars, washing machines, and home computers), purchased by households. It excludes purchases of dwellings but includes imputed rent for owner-occupied dwellings. It also includes payments and fees to governments to obtain permits and licenses. Here, household consumption expenditure includes the expenditures of nonprofit institutions serving households, even when reported separately by the country. This item also includes any statistical discrepancy in the use of resources relative to the supply of resources.
billion EUR
1443.13
Q1/2021
quarterly
Q1/1995 - Q1/2021
The market value of all goods and services, including durable products, purchased by households.
percent
50.47
Q1/2021
quarterly
Q1/1995 - Q1/2021
Household Consumption as percent of GDP
percent
-4.80
Q1/2021
quarterly
Q1/1996 - Q1/2021
The percent change in Household Consumption from the same quarter last year.
billion EUR
613.31
Q1/2021
quarterly
Q1/1995 - Q1/2021
Gross fixed capital formation including land improvements; plant, machinery, and equipment purchases; and the construction of roads, railways, and the like, including schools, offices, hospitals, private residential dwellings, and commercial and industrial buildings.
percent
21.45
Q1/2021
quarterly
Q1/1995 - Q1/2021
Gross fixed capital formation including land improvements; plant, machinery, and equipment purchases; and the construction of roads, railways, and the like, including schools, offices, hospitals, private residential dwellings, and commercial and industrial buildings as percent of GDP
percent
-0.75
Q1/2021
quarterly
Q1/1996 - Q1/2021
The percent change in investment (Physical Capital Accumulation) from the same quarter last year.
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Money
Measure
Frequency
Latest value
Reference
Time coverage
percent
0.3
2020
annual
1960  -  2020
Inflation as measured by the consumer price index reflects the annual percentage change in the cost to the average consumer of acquiring a basket of goods and services that may be fixed or changed at specified intervals, such as yearly. The Laspeyres formula is generally used.
billion EUR
14130.41
May/2021
monthly
1/1980 - 5/2021
The money supply is the total amount of currency and other liquid instruments circulating in the economy. The indicator represents the broad money that include currency outside banks; demand, time, saving, and foreign currency deposits of resident sectors other than the central government; bank and traveler's checks; and other securities such as certificates of deposit and commercial paper.
index points
107.70
Jun/2021
monthly
1/1996 - 6/2021
The Consumer Price Index (CPI) measures the changes in the cost of a basket of goods and services consumed by the average urban household.
percent
0.26
Jun/2021
monthly
2/1996 - 6/2021
The percentage change in the CPI from one month to the next.
percent
1.90
Jun/2021
monthly
1/1997 - 6/2021
Percent change in the CPI from the same month last year.
billion EUR
10962.34
May/2021
monthly
9/1997 - 5/2021
Private sector credit refers to the credit extended by commercial banks and other deposit-taking institutions (excluding central banks) to private non-financial firms and households. Included are all credit institutions: domestic and foreign owned as well as private and public ones.
billion EUR
4759.07
May/2021
monthly
9/1997 - 5/2021
Business credit includes credit extended by commercial banks and other deposit-taking institutions (excluding central banks) to private non-financial firms. Included are all credit institutions: domestic and foreign owned as well as private and public ones.
billion EUR
6203.27
May/2021
monthly
9/1997 - 5/2021
Household credit includes credit extended by commercial banks and other deposit-taking institutions (excluding central banks) to households. Included are all credit institutions: domestic and foreign owned as well as private and public ones.
billion EUR
4821.61
May/2021
monthly
9/1997 - 5/2021
Loans provided by commercial banks for the purchase of non-commercial real estate. In billion local currency units.
billion EUR
1381.66
May/2021
monthly
9/1997 - 5/2021
Loans provided by commercial banks to households and individuals for the purchase of goods and services, excluding real estate. In billion local currency units.
percent
0.16
May/2021
monthly
1/2000 - 5/2021
The deposit interest rate is the average interest rate on one year term deposits offered by the commercial banks to the household sector.
percent
1.75
May/2021
monthly
1/2003 - 5/2021
The business credit interest rate is the average interest rate on the loan products offered by commercial banks to non-financial corporations. The business credit is a credit specifically intended for business purposes including secured and unsecured business loans to small or large business with variable or fixed interest rate.
percent
1.71
May/2021
monthly
1/2003 - 5/2021
The mortgage credit interest rate is the average interest rate on mortgage loan products offered to individuals and households by the commercial banks in the country. The mortgage credit is a loan used to finance the purchase of real estate.
Local Currency Units per USD
0.8312
Jun/2021
monthly
1/2010 - 6/2021
The amount of local currency units that can be exchanged for one USD. An increase (decrease) means USD appreciation (depreciation).
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Labor market
Measure
Frequency
Latest value
Reference
Time coverage
million people
163.50
2020
annual
1990  -  2020
Labor force comprises people ages 15 and older who supply labor for the production of goods and services during a specified period. It includes people who are currently employed and people who are unemployed but seeking work as well as first-time job-seekers. Not everyone who works is included, however. Unpaid workers, family workers, and students are often omitted, and some countries do not count members of the armed forces. Labor force size tends to vary during the year as seasonal workers enter and leave.
percent
8.20
2020
annual
1991  -  2020
Unemployment refers to the share of the labor force that is without work but available for and seeking employment.
percent
7.93
2019
annual
1991  -  2019
Unemployment refers to the share of the labor force that is without work but available for and seeking employment.
percent
7.23
2019
annual
1991  -  2019
Unemployment refers to the share of the labor force that is without work but available for and seeking employment.
percent
18.19
2019
annual
1991  -  2019
Youth unemployment refers to the share of the labor force ages 15-24 without work but available for and seeking employment.
percent
56.10
2020
annual
1990  -  2020
Labor force participation rate is the proportion of the population ages 15 and older that is economically active: all people who supply labor for the production of goods and services during a specified period.
percent
46.16
2019
annual
1990  -  2019
Female labor force as a percentage of the total show the extent to which women are active in the labor force. Labor force comprises people ages 15 and older who supply labor for the production of goods and services during a specified period.
percent
51.09
2019
annual
1990  -  2019
Labor force participation rate is the proportion of the population ages 15 and older that is economically active: all people who supply labor for the production of goods and services during a specified period.
percent
63.30
2019
annual
1990  -  2019
Labor force participation rate is the proportion of the population ages 15 and older that is economically active: all people who supply labor for the production of goods and services during a specified period.
million employed people
156.36
Q1/2021
quarterly
Q1/1995 - Q1/2021
The number of people, in millions, engaged in the economy as paid employees or as self-employed.
percent
7.70
May/2021
monthly
4/1998 - 5/2021
The unemployment rate represents the share of the labor force that is without work but available for and seeking employment.
index points
111.10
Q1/2021
quarterly
Q1/2001 - Q1/2021
The index reflects the level of the total compensation of employees in the economy. Labor costs are defined as core expenditure borne by employers for the purpose of employing staff. They include employee compensation, with wages and salaries in cash and in kind, employers' social security contributions and employment taxes regarded as labor costs minus any subsidies received.
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International trade and investment
Measure
Frequency
Latest value
Reference
Time coverage
percent
45.81
2019
annual
1970  -  2019
Exports of goods and services represent the value of all goods and other market services provided to the rest of the world. They include the value of merchandise, freight, insurance, transport, travel, royalties, license fees, and other services, such as communication, construction, financial, information, business, personal, and government services. They exclude compensation of employees and investment income (formerly called factor services) and transfer payments.
percent
-9.41
2020
annual
1971  -  2020
Annual growth rate of exports of goods and services based on constant local currency. Aggregates are based on constant 2010 U.S. dollars. Exports of goods and services represent the value of all goods and other market services provided to the rest of the world. They include the value of merchandise, freight, insurance, transport, travel, royalties, license fees, and other services, such as communication, construction, financial, information, business, personal, and government services. They exclude compensation of employees and investment income (formerly called factor services) and transfer payments.
percent
42.37
2019
annual
1970  -  2019
Imports of goods and services represent the value of all goods and other market services received from the rest of the world. They include the value of merchandise, freight, insurance, transport, travel, royalties, license fees, and other services, such as communication, construction, financial, information, business, personal, and government services. They exclude compensation of employees and investment income (formerly called factor services) and transfer payments.
percent
1.34
2019
annual
1971  -  2019
Foreign direct investment are the net inflows of investment to acquire a lasting management interest (10 percent or more of voting stock) in an enterprise operating in an economy other than that of the investor. It is the sum of equity capital, reinvestment of earnings, other long-term capital, and short-term capital as shown in the balance of payments. This series shows net inflows (new investment inflows less disinvestment) in the reporting economy from foreign investors, and is divided by GDP.
million dollars (current)
507656.18
2019
annual
1967  -  2019
Portfolio equity includes net inflows from equity securities other than those recorded as direct investment and including shares, stocks, depository receipts (American or global), and direct purchases of shares in local stock markets by foreign investors. Data are in current U.S. dollars.
percent
3.18
2020
annual
1970  -  2020
External balance on goods and services (formerly resource balance) equals exports of goods and services minus imports of goods and services (previously nonfactor services).
billion USD
914.23
2019
annual
1999  -  2019
Total reserves comprise holdings of monetary gold, special drawing rights, reserves of IMF members held by the IMF, and holdings of foreign exchange under the control of monetary authorities. The gold component of these reserves is valued at year-end (December 31) London prices. Data are in current U.S. dollars.
million USD
6934.44
2020
annual
2008  -  2020
Personal transfers consist of all current transfers in cash or in kind made or received by resident households to or from nonresident households. Personal transfers thus include all current transfers between resident and nonresident individuals. Data are in current U.S. dollars.
million EUR
4305.00
May/2021
monthly
1/2008 - 5/2021
The current account balance is the sum of net exports of goods and services, net primary income, and net secondary income.
million EUR
271491.00
May/2021
monthly
1/2008 - 5/2021
Exports comprises all transactions of goods and services (sales, barter, or gifts or grants) from residents of a country to non-residents.
billion EUR
869.05
Jun/2021
monthly
12/1999 - 6/2021
Foreign exchange reserves consist of foreign currency, deposits denominated in foreign currency, Monetary Gold, Special Drawing Rights (SDRs) and Reserve position in the International Monetary Fund (IMF). Foreign exchange reserves are held by monetary authorities to finance trade imbalances, check the impact of foreign exchange fluctuations and address other issues under the purview of the central bank.
million EUR
38929.00
May/2021
monthly
1/2008 - 5/2021
Foreign direct investment refers to direct investment equity flows in the reporting economy. It is the sum of equity capital, reinvestment of earnings, and other capital. Direct investment is a category of cross-border investment associated with a resident in one economy having control or a significant degree of influence on the management of an enterprise that is resident in another economy. Ownership of 10 percent or more of the ordinary shares of voting stock is the criterion for determining the existence of a direct investment relationship.
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Government
Measure
Frequency
Latest value
Reference
Time coverage
percent
22.73
2020
annual
1970  -  2020
General government final consumption expenditure (formerly general government consumption) includes all government current expenditures for purchases of goods and services (including compensation of employees). It also includes most expenditures on national defense and security, but excludes government military expenditures that are part of government capital formation.
percent
98.00
2020
annual
1995  -  2020
Debt is the entire stock of direct government fixed-term contractual obligations to others outstanding on a particular date. It includes domestic and foreign liabilities such as currency and money deposits, securities other than shares, and loans. It is the gross amount of government liabilities reduced by the amount of equity and financial derivatives held by the government. Because debt is a stock rather than a flow, it is measured as of a given date, usually the last day of the fiscal year.
billion EUR
642.01
Q1/2021
quarterly
Q1/1995 - Q1/2021
Total spending by all levels of government but excluding public enterprises.
million EUR
-256878.90
Q1/2021
quarterly
Q1/2002 - Q1/2021
Revenue minus expenditure of the consolidated government.
Million local currency units EUR
11430866.30
Q1/2021
quarterly
Q1/2000 - Q1/2021
General government gross debt, also known as public debt, is the nominal (face) value of total gross debt outstanding at the end of the period and consolidated between and within the government subsectors. Only core debt instruments are included, defined here as comprising (i) currency and deposits; (ii) loans; and (iii) debt securities.
percent
19.47
2019
annual
1972  -  2019
Tax revenue refers to compulsory transfers to the central government for public purposes. Certain compulsory transfers such as fines, penalties, and most social security contributions are excluded. Refunds and corrections of erroneously collected tax revenue are treated as negative revenue.
percent
42.84
2019
annual
2005  -  2019
Total tax rate measures the amount of taxes and mandatory contributions payable by businesses after accounting for allowable deductions and exemptions as a share of commercial profits. Taxes withheld (such as personal income tax) or collected and remitted to tax authorities (such as value added taxes, sales taxes or goods and service taxes) are excluded.
hours
147
2019
annual
2005  -  2019
Time to prepare and pay taxes is the time, in hours per year, it takes to prepare, file, and pay (or withhold) three major types of taxes: the corporate income tax, the value added or sales tax, and labor taxes, including payroll taxes and social security contributions.
taxes
10
2019
annual
2005  -  2019
Tax payments by businesses are the total number of taxes paid by businesses, including electronic filing. The tax is counted as paid once a year even if payments are more frequent.
percent
30.34
2019
annual
1973  -  2019
Taxes on goods and services include general sales and turnover or value added taxes, selective excises on goods, selective taxes on services, taxes on the use of goods or property, taxes on extraction and production of minerals, and profits of fiscal monopolies.
percent
0.00
2019
annual
1973  -  2019
Taxes on international trade include import duties, export duties, profits of export or import monopolies, exchange profits, and exchange taxes.
percent
22.98
2019
annual
1973  -  2019
Taxes on income, profits, and capital gains are levied on the actual or presumptive net income of individuals, on the profits of corporations and enterprises, and on capital gains, whether realized or not, on land, securities, and other assets. Intragovernmental payments are eliminated in consolidation.
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Governance and business environment
Measure
Frequency
Latest value
Reference
Time coverage
percent of per capita GNI
3.21
2019
annual
2003  -  2019
The indicator includes all official fees and fees for legal or professional services if such services are required by law. The company law, the commercial code, and specific regulations and fee schedules are used as sources for calculating costs. The indicator excludes bribes.
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Infrastructure and transport characteristics
Measure
Frequency
Latest value
Reference
Time coverage
percent
86.69
2019
annual
1990  -  2019
Internet users are individuals who have used the Internet (from any location) in the last 3 months. The Internet can be used via a computer, mobile phone, personal digital assistant, games machine, digital TV etc.
thousand subscribers
128568
2019
annual
2000  -  2019
Fixed broadband subscriptions refers to fixed subscriptions to high-speed access to the public Internet (a TCP/IP connection), at downstream speeds equal to, or greater than, 256 kbit/s. This includes cable modem, DSL, fiber-to-the-home/building, other fixed (wired)-broadband subscriptions, satellite broadband and terrestrial fixed wireless broadband. This total is measured irrespective of the method of payment. It excludes subscriptions that have access to data communications (including the Internet) via mobile-cellular networks. It should include fixed WiMAX and any other fixed wireless technologies. It includes both residential subscriptions and subscriptions for organizations.
percent
37.80
2019
annual
2000  -  2019
Fixed broadband subscriptions refers to fixed subscriptions to high-speed access to the public Internet (a TCP/IP connection), at downstream speeds equal to, or greater than, 256 kbit/s. This includes cable modem, DSL, fiber-to-the-home/building, other fixed (wired)-broadband subscriptions, satellite broadband and terrestrial fixed wireless broadband. This total is measured irrespective of the method of payment. It excludes subscriptions that have access to data communications (including the Internet) via mobile-cellular networks. It should include fixed WiMAX and any other fixed wireless technologies. It includes both residential subscriptions and subscriptions for organizations.
million subscribers
415.48
2019
annual
1960  -  2019
Mobile cellular telephone subscriptions are subscriptions to a public mobile telephone service that provide access to the PSTN using cellular technology. The indicator includes (and is split into) the number of postpaid subscriptions, and the number of active prepaid accounts (i.e. that have been used during the last three months). The indicator applies to all mobile cellular subscriptions that offer voice communications. It excludes subscriptions via data cards or USB modems, subscriptions to public mobile data services, private trunked mobile radio, telepoint, radio paging and telemetry services.
subscribers per 100 people
122.17
2019
annual
1960  -  2019
Mobile cellular telephone subscriptions are subscriptions to a public mobile telephone service that provide access to the PSTN using cellular technology. The indicator includes (and is split into) the number of postpaid subscriptions, and the number of active prepaid accounts (i.e. that have been used during the last three months). The indicator applies to all mobile cellular subscriptions that offer voice communications. It excludes subscriptions via data cards or USB modems, subscriptions to public mobile data services, private trunked mobile radio, telepoint, radio paging and telemetry services.
million passengers
634.26
2019
annual
1970  -  2019
Air passengers carried include both domestic and international aircraft passengers of air carriers registered in the country.
metric tons times kilometers
9375
2019
annual
1995  -  2019
Goods transported by railway are the volume of goods transported by railway, measured in metric tons times kilometers traveled.
million passengers times km's
4511
2018
annual
1995  -  2018
Passengers carried by railway are the number of passengers transported by rail times kilometers traveled.
million containers
98.54
2019
annual
2000  -  2019
Port container traffic measures the flow of containers from land to sea transport modes., and vice versa, in twenty-foot equivalent units (TEUs), a standard-size container. Data refer to coastal shipping as well as international journeys. Transshipment traffic is counted as two lifts at the intermediate port (once to off-load and again as an outbound lift) and includes empty units.
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Energy and environment
Measure
Frequency
Latest value
Reference
Time coverage
kilograms of oil equivalent
3329.03
2015
annual
1960  -  2015
Energy use refers to use of primary energy before transformation to other end-use fuels, which is equal to indigenous production plus imports and stock changes, minus exports and fuels supplied to ships and aircraft engaged in international transport.
percent
16.08
2015
annual
1990  -  2015
Renewable energy consumption is the share of renewables energy in total final energy consumption.
kilograms of oil equivalent
75.45
2015
annual
1990  -  2015
Energy use per PPP GDP is the kilogram of oil equivalent of energy use per constant PPP GDP. Energy use refers to use of primary energy before transformation to other end-use fuels, which is equal to indigenous production plus imports and stock changes, minus exports and fuels supplied to ships and aircraft engaged in international transport. PPP GDP is gross domestic product converted to 2017 constant international dollars using purchasing power parity rates. An international dollar has the same purchasing power over GDP as a U.S. dollar has in the United States.
million kWh
426101.01
2015
annual
1960  -  2015
Electricity production from renewable sources, excluding hydroelectric, includes geothermal, solar, tides, wind, biomass, and biofuels.
kt
2228501
2016
annual
1991  -  2016
Carbon dioxide emissions are those stemming from the burning of fossil fuels and the manufacture of cement. They include carbon dioxide produced during consumption of solid, liquid, and gas fuels and gas flaring.
metric tons
6.55
2016
annual
1991  -  2016
Carbon dioxide emissions are those stemming from the burning of fossil fuels and the manufacture of cement. They include carbon dioxide produced during consumption of solid, liquid, and gas fuels and gas flaring.
GDP per kg of oil equivalent
12.41
2015
annual
1990  -  2015
GDP per unit of energy use is the PPP GDP per kilogram of oil equivalent of energy use. PPP GDP is gross domestic product converted to 2011 constant international dollars using purchasing power parity rates. An international dollar has the same purchasing power over GDP as a U.S. dollar has in the United States.
percent
59.84
2015
annual
1960  -  2015
Net energy imports are estimated as energy use less production, both measured in oil equivalents. A negative value indicates that the country is a net exporter. Energy use refers to use of primary energy before transformation to other end-use fuels, which is equal to indigenous production plus imports and stock changes, minus exports and fuels supplied to ships and aircraft engaged in international transport.
percent
0.12
2018
annual
1970  -  2018
Total natural resources rents are the sum of oil rents, natural gas rents, coal rents (hard and soft), mineral rents, and forest rents.
percent
0.02
2018
annual
1970  -  2018
Oil rents are the difference between the value of crude oil production at world prices and total costs of production.
percent
0.04
2018
annual
1970  -  2018
Natural gas rents are the difference between the value of natural gas production at world prices and total costs of production.
percent
100.00
2018
annual
1990  -  2018
Access to electricity is the percentage of population with access to electricity. Electrification data are collected from industry, national surveys and international sources.
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Agriculture sector
Measure
Frequency
Latest value
Reference
Time coverage
percent
38.5
2018
annual
1990  -  2018
Forest area is land under natural or planted stands of trees of at least 5 meters in situ, whether productive or not, and excludes tree stands in agricultural production systems (for example, in fruit plantations and agroforestry systems) and trees in urban parks and gardens.
percent
42.82
2018
annual
1961  -  2018
Agricultural land refers to the share of land area that is arable, under permanent crops, and under permanent pastures. Arable land includes land defined by the FAO as land under temporary crops (double-cropped areas are counted once), temporary meadows for mowing or for pasture, land under market or kitchen gardens, and land temporarily fallow. Land abandoned as a result of shifting cultivation is excluded. Land under permanent crops is land cultivated with crops that occupy the land for long periods and need not be replanted after each harvest, such as cocoa, coffee, and rubber. This category includes land under flowering shrubs, fruit trees, nut trees, and vines, but excludes land under trees grown for wood or timber. Permanent pasture is land used for five or more years for forage, including natural and cultivated crops.
percent
2.98
2019
annual
1991  -  2019
Employment is defined as persons of working age who were engaged in any activity to produce goods or provide services for pay or profit, whether at work during the reference period or not at work due to temporary absence from a job, or to working-time arrangement. The agriculture sector consists of activities in agriculture, hunting, forestry and fishing, in accordance with division 1 (ISIC 2) or categories A-B (ISIC 3) or category A (ISIC 4).
percent
1.55
2019
annual
1991  -  2019
Agriculture corresponds to ISIC divisions 1-5 and includes forestry, hunting, and fishing, as well as cultivation of crops and livestock production. Value added is the net output of a sector after adding up all outputs and subtracting intermediate inputs. It is calculated without making deductions for depreciation of fabricated assets or depletion and degradation of natural resources. The origin of value added is determined by the International Standard Industrial Classification (ISIC), revision 3 or 4.
sq. km.
1148507
2018
annual
1961  -  2018
Agricultural land refers to the share of land area that is arable, under permanent crops, and under permanent pastures. Arable land includes land defined by the FAO as land under temporary crops (double-cropped areas are counted once), temporary meadows for mowing or for pasture, land under market or kitchen gardens, and land temporarily fallow. Land abandoned as a result of shifting cultivation is excluded. Land under permanent crops is land cultivated with crops that occupy the land for long periods and need not be replanted after each harvest, such as cocoa, coffee, and rubber. This category includes land under flowering shrubs, fruit trees, nut trees, and vines, but excludes land under trees grown for wood or timber. Permanent pasture is land used for five or more years for forage, including natural and cultivated crops.
index points
0.1
2014
annual
1961  -  2014
Crop production index shows agricultural production for each year relative to the base period 2014-2016. It includes all crops except fodder crops. Regional and income group aggregates for the FAO's production indexes are calculated from the underlying values in international dollars, normalized to the base period 2014-2016.
percent
23.6
2018
annual
1961  -  2018
Arable land includes land defined by the FAO as land under temporary crops (double-cropped areas are counted once), temporary meadows for mowing or for pasture, land under market or kitchen gardens, and land temporarily fallow. Land abandoned as a result of shifting cultivation is excluded.
kg per hectar
5515
2018
annual
1961  -  2018
Cereal yield, measured as kilograms per hectare of harvested land, includes wheat, rice, maize, barley, oats, rye, millet, sorghum, buckwheat, and mixed grains. Production data on cereals relate to crops harvested for dry grain only. Cereal crops harvested for hay or harvested green for food, feed, or silage and those used for grazing are excluded. The FAO allocates production data to the calendar year in which the bulk of the harvest took place. Most of a crop harvested near the end of a year will be used in the following year.
index points
0.2
2014
annual
1961  -  2014
Food production index covers food crops that are considered edible and that contain nutrients. Coffee and tea are excluded because, although edible, they have no nutritive value.
kg per hectare of arable land
168.2
2018
annual
1961  -  2018
Fertilizer consumption measures the quantity of plant nutrients used per unit of arable land. Fertilizer products cover nitrogenous, potash, and phosphate fertilizers (including ground rock phosphate). Traditional nutrients--animal and plant manures--are not included. For the purpose of data dissemination, FAO has adopted the concept of a calendar year (January to December). Some countries compile fertilizer data on a calendar year basis, while others are on a split-year basis. Arable land includes land defined by the FAO as land under temporary crops (double-cropped areas are counted once), temporary meadows for mowing or for pasture, land under market or kitchen gardens, and land temporarily fallow. Land abandoned as a result of shifting cultivation is excluded.
index points
0.1
2014
annual
1961  -  2014
Livestock production index includes meat and milk from all sources, dairy products such as cheese, and eggs, honey, raw silk, wool, and hides and skins.
sq. km
1033420.0
2018
annual
1990  -  2018
Forest area is land under natural or planted stands of trees of at least 5 meters in situ, whether productive or not, and excludes tree stands in agricultural production systems (for example, in fruit plantations and agroforestry systems) and trees in urban parks and gardens.
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Banking system access and depth
Measure
Frequency
Latest value
Reference
Time coverage
ATMs per 100,000 adults
66.87
2019
annual
2004  -  2019
Number of ATMs per 100,000 adults. Automated teller machines are computerized telecommunications devices that provide clients of a financial institution with access to financial transactions in a public place.
percent
85.36
2019
annual
2001  -  2019
Domestic credit to private sector by banks refers to financial resources provided to the private sector by other depository corporations (deposit taking corporations except central banks), such as through loans, purchases of nonequity securities, and trade credits and other accounts receivable, that establish a claim for repayment. For some countries these claims include credit to public enterprises.
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Banking system efficiency and stability
Measure
Frequency
Latest value
Reference
Time coverage
points
6.32
2019
annual
2013  -  2019
Depth of credit information index measures rules affecting the scope, accessibility, and quality of credit information available through public or private credit registries. The index ranges from 0 to 8, with higher values indicating the availability of more credit information, from either a public registry or a private bureau, to facilitate lending decisions.
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Stock market, insurance, pensions
Measure
Frequency
Latest value
Reference
Time coverage
percent
54.60
2018
annual
1975  -  2018
Market capitalization (also known as market value) is the share price times the number of shares outstanding (including their several classes) for listed domestic companies. Investment funds, unit trusts, and companies whose only business goal is to hold shares of other listed companies are excluded. Data are end of year values.
percent
71.41
2020
annual
1976  -  2020
Turnover ratio is the value of domestic shares traded divided by their market capitalization. The value is annualized by multiplying the monthly average by 12.
companies
4511
2018
annual
1975  -  2018
Listed domestic companies, including foreign companies which are exclusively listed, are those which have shares listed on an exchange at the end of the year. Investment funds, unit trusts, and companies whose only business goal is to hold shares of other listed companies, such as holding companies and investment companies, regardless of their legal status, are excluded. A company with several classes of shares is counted once. Only companies admitted to listing on the exchange are included.
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Innovation measures
Measure
Frequency
Latest value
Reference
Time coverage
percent
2.21
2018
annual
1996  -  2018
Gross domestic expenditures on research and development (R&D), expressed as a percent of GDP. They include both capital and current expenditures in the four main sectors: Business enterprise, Government, Higher education and Private non-profit. R&D covers basic research, applied research, and experimental development.
percent
4.79
2019
annual
2000  -  2019
Information and communication technology goods exports include computers and peripheral equipment, communication equipment, consumer electronic equipment, electronic components, and other information and technology goods (miscellaneous).
million USD
586770.55
2019
annual
2007  -  2019
High-technology exports are products with high R&D intensity, such as aerospace, computers, pharmaceuticals, scientific instruments, and electrical machinery. Data are in current U.S. dollars.
percent
16.58
2019
annual
2007  -  2019
High-technology exports are products with high R&D intensity, such as in aerospace, computers, pharmaceuticals, scientific instruments, and electrical machinery.
patent applications
79395
2019
annual
1980  -  2019
Patent applications are worldwide patent applications filed through the Patent Cooperation Treaty procedure or with a national patent office for exclusive rights for an invention--a product or process that provides a new way of doing something or offers a new technical solution to a problem. A patent provides protection for the invention to the owner of the patent for a limited period, generally 20 years.
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Demographics
Measure
Frequency
Latest value
Reference
Time coverage
million
342.67
2019
annual
1960  -  2019
Total population is based on the de facto definition of population, which counts all residents regardless of legal status or citizenship. The values shown are midyear estimates.
percent
77.46
2020
annual
1960  -  2020
Urban population refers to people living in urban areas as defined by national statistical offices. The data are collected and smoothed by United Nations Population Division.
percent
20.86
2019
annual
1960  -  2019
Population ages 65 and above as a percentage of the total population. Population is based on the de facto definition of population, which counts all residents regardless of legal status or citizenship.
percent
15.02
2019
annual
1960  -  2019
Total population below the age of 14 as a percentage of the total population. Population is based on the de facto definition of population, which counts all residents regardless of legal status or citizenship.
percent
51.07
2019
annual
1960  -  2019
Female population is the percentage of the population that is female. Population is based on the de facto definition of population, which counts all residents regardless of legal status or citizenship.
percent
22.78
2019
annual
1960  -  2019
Rural population refers to people living in rural areas as defined by national statistical offices. It is calculated as the difference between total population and urban population.
percent
56.56
2020
annual
1960  -  2020
Age dependency ratio is the ratio of dependents--people younger than 15 or older than 64--to the working-age population--those ages 15-64. Data are shown as the proportion of dependents per 100 working-age population.
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Health spending and outcomes
Measure
Frequency
Latest value
Reference
Time coverage
USD
4063.50
2018
annual
2000  -  2018
Current expenditures on health per capita in current US dollars. Estimates of current health expenditures include healthcare goods and services consumed during each year.
percent
10.14
2018
annual
2000  -  2018
Level of current health expenditure expressed as a percentage of GDP. Estimates of current health expenditures include healthcare goods and services consumed during each year. This indicator does not include capital health expenditures such as buildings, machinery, IT and stocks of vaccines for emergency or outbreaks.
years
82.04
2019
annual
1960  -  2019
Life expectancy at birth indicates the number of years a newborn infant would live if prevailing patterns of mortality at the time of its birth were to stay the same throughout its life.
births per 1000 people
9.10
2019
annual
1960  -  2019
Crude birth rate indicates the number of live births occurring during the year, per 1,000 population estimated at midyear. Subtracting the crude death rate from the crude birth rate provides the rate of natural increase, which is equal to the rate of population change in the absence of migration.
deaths per 1000 people
10.03
2019
annual
1960  -  2019
Crude death rate indicates the number of deaths occurring during the year, per 1,000 population estimated at midyear. Subtracting the crude death rate from the crude birth rate provides the rate of natural increase, which is equal to the rate of population change in the absence of migration.
births per woman
1.51
2019
annual
1960  -  2019
Total fertility rate represents the number of children that would be born to a woman if she were to live to the end of her childbearing years and bear children in accordance with age-specific fertility rates of the specified year.
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Education spending and outcomes
Measure
Frequency
Latest value
Reference
Time coverage
percent
4.94
2017
annual
1971  -  2017
General government expenditure on education (current, capital, and transfers) is expressed as a percentage of GDP. It includes expenditure funded by transfers from international sources to government. General government usually refers to local, regional and central governments.
percent
11.85
2017
annual
1987  -  2017
General government expenditure on education (current, capital, and transfers) is expressed as a percentage of total general government expenditure on all sectors (including health, education, social services, etc.). It includes expenditure funded by transfers from international sources to government. General government usually refers to local, regional and central governments.
students per teacher
13.20
2018
annual
1970  -  2018
Primary school pupil-teacher ratio is the average number of pupils per teacher in primary school.
percent
96.46
2019
annual
1970  -  2019
Primary completion rate, or gross intake ratio to the last grade of primary education, is the number of new entrants (enrollments minus repeaters) in the last grade of primary education, regardless of age, divided by the population at the entrance age for the last grade of primary education. Data limitations preclude adjusting for students who drop out during the final year of primary education.
percent
1.00
2019
annual
1970  -  2019
Gender parity index for gross enrollment ratio in primary education is the ratio of girls to boys enrolled at primary level in public and private schools.
percent
1.00
2019
annual
1970  -  2019
Gender parity index for gross enrollment ratio in secondary education is the ratio of girls to boys enrolled at secondary level in public and private schools.
percent
1.15
2019
annual
1970  -  2019
Gender parity index for gross enrollment ratio in tertiary education is the ratio of women to men enrolled at tertiary level in public and private schools.
percent
100.33
2019
annual
1970  -  2019
Gross enrollment ratio is the ratio of total enrollment, regardless of age, to the population of the age group that officially corresponds to the level of education shown. Preprimary education refers to programs at the initial stage of organized instruction, designed primarily to introduce very young children to a school-type environment and to provide a bridge between home and school.
percent
102.61
2019
annual
1970  -  2019
Gross enrollment ratio is the ratio of total enrollment, regardless of age, to the population of the age group that officially corresponds to the level of education shown. Primary education provides children with basic reading, writing, and mathematics skills along with an elementary understanding of such subjects as history, geography, natural science, social science, art, and music.
percent
108.62
2019
annual
1970  -  2019
Gross enrollment ratio is the ratio of total enrollment, regardless of age, to the population of the age group that officially corresponds to the level of education shown. Secondary education completes the provision of basic education that began at the primary level, and aims at laying the foundations for lifelong learning and human development, by offering more subject- or skill-oriented instruction using more specialized teachers.
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Economic structure
Measure
Frequency
Latest value
Reference
Time coverage
percent
21.74
2019
annual
1991  -  2019
Industry corresponds to ISIC divisions 10-45 and includes manufacturing (ISIC divisions 15-37). It comprises value added in mining, manufacturing (also reported as a separate subgroup), construction, electricity, water, and gas. Value added is the net output of a sector after adding up all outputs and subtracting intermediate inputs. It is calculated without making deductions for depreciation of fabricated assets or depletion and degradation of natural resources. The origin of value added is determined by the International Standard Industrial Classification (ISIC), revision 3 or 4.
percent
14.27
2019
annual
1991  -  2019
Manufacturing refers to industries belonging to ISIC divisions 15-37. Value added is the net output of a sector after adding up all outputs and subtracting intermediate inputs. It is calculated without making deductions for depreciation of fabricated assets or depletion and degradation of natural resources. The origin of value added is determined by the International Standard Industrial Classification (ISIC), revision 3. Note: For VAB countries, gross value added at factor cost is used as the denominator.
percent
66.22
2019
annual
1991  -  2019
Services correspond to ISIC divisions 50-99 and they include value added in wholesale and retail trade (including hotels and restaurants), transport, and government, financial, professional, and personal services such as education, health care, and real estate services. Also included are imputed bank service charges, import duties, and any statistical discrepancies noted by national compilers as well as discrepancies arising from rescaling. Value added is the net output of a sector after adding up all outputs and subtracting intermediate inputs. It is calculated without making deductions for depreciation of fabricated assets or depletion and degradation of natural resources. The industrial origin of value added is determined by the International Standard Industrial Classification (ISIC), revision 3 or 4.
percent
24.92
2019
annual
1975  -  2019
Gross savings are calculated as gross national income less total consumption, plus net transfers.
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Military
Measure
Frequency
Latest value
Reference
Time coverage
billion USD
184.34
2019
annual
1960  -  2019
Military spending includes expenditure on peacekeeping, defense ministries, paramilitary forces, and military space activities. Also: military and civil personnel, including retirement pensions; operations and maintenance; procurement; military research and development; and military aid. Defense and current expenditure for past military activities, such as for veterans' benefits, demobilization, conversion, and weapon destruction, are not included.
percent
1.39
2019
annual
1960  -  2019
Military spending includes expenditure on peacekeeping, defense ministries, paramilitary forces, and military space activities. Also: military and civil personnel, including retirement pensions; operations and maintenance; procurement; military research and development; and military aid. Defense and current expenditure for past military activities, such as for veterans' benefits, demobilization, conversion, and weapon destruction, are not included.
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Other indicators
Measure
Frequency
Latest value
Reference
Time coverage
percent
33.86
2020
annual
1997  -  2020
Women in parliaments are the percentage of parliamentary seats in a single or lower chamber held by women.
sq. km
2682453
2018
annual
1961  -  2018
Land area is a country's total area, excluding area under inland water bodies, national claims to continental shelf, and exclusive economic zones. In most cases the definition of inland water bodies includes major rivers and lakes.
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