Bulgaria: Informal economy, MIMIC method

* indicates monthly or quarterly data series
 Bulgaria

Informal economy, MIMIC method

 Latest value 32.70
 Year 2020
 Measure percent
 Data availability 1993 - 2020
 Average 34.56
 Min - Max 31.80 - 36.90
 Source Informal economy database
For that indicator, we provide data for Bulgaria from 1993 to 2020. The average value for Bulgaria during that period was 34.56 percent with a minimum of 31.8 percent in 2019 and a maximum of 36.9 percent in 1993. The latest value from 2020 is 32.7 percent. For comparison, the world average in 2020 based on 158 countries is 32.74 percent. See the global rankings for that indicator or use the country comparator to compare trends over time.
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* indicates monthly or quarterly data series


Recent values chart
Bulgaria - Informal economy, MIMIC method - Recent values chart

Historical chart
Bulgaria - Informal economy, MIMIC method - historical chart - 1993-2020




Definition: The MIMIC model of the World Bank uses the following variables as determinants of the informal economy: 1) size of government, 2) share of direct taxation, 3) fiscal freedom index, 4) business freedom index, 5) unemployment rate and GDP per capita, and 6) government effectiveness. It proposes that the following variables are affected by the informal economy: 1) growth rate of GDP per capita, 2) the labor force participation rate, and 3) currency as a ratio of M0. These variables are used in a Structural Equation Model (SEM) with a latent variable that is a measure of the size of the informal economy. See, for example, Schneider, Buehn, and Montenegro (International Economic Journal, 2010).

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 Related indicators Latest value Reference Measure
 Rule of law -0.11 2022 points
 Government effectiveness -0.27 2022 points
 Control of corruption -0.16 2022 points
 Regulatory quality 0.32 2022 points
 Voice and accountability 0.29 2022 points
 Political stability 0.25 2022 points
 Corruption perceptions - Transparency International 43 2022 points
 Political rights 2 2024 points
 Civil liberties 2 2024 points
 Competitiveness 64.90 2019 points
 Cost of starting a business 1.00 2019 percent of per capita GNI
 Shadow economy 20.83 2015 percent
 Informal economy, MIMIC method 32.70 2020 percent
 Informal economy, DGE method 27.80 2020 percent
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