Main macroeconomic indicators (monthly/quarterly data)
The percent change in the Gross Domestic Product from the same quarter last year using constant prices.
The Gross Domestic Product (GDP) is the sum of the gross value added by all resident producers in the economy plus any product taxes and minus any subsidies not included in the value of the products. The data are in billion local currency units using current prices.
The market value of all goods and services, including durable products, purchased by households.
Gross fixed capital formation including land improvements; plant, machinery, and equipment purchases; and the construction of roads, railways, and the like, including schools, offices, hospitals, private residential dwellings, and commercial and industrial buildings.
The consumer price index measures the changes in the cost of a basket of consumer goods and services.
The money supply is the total amount of currency and other liquid instruments circulating in the economy. The indicator represents the broad money that include currency outside banks; demand, time, saving, and foreign currency deposits of resident sectors other than the central government; bank and traveler’s checks; and other securities such as certificates of deposit and commercial paper.
The number of people, in millions, engaged in the economy as paid employees or as self-employed.
The unemployment rate represents the share of the labor force that is without work but available for and seeking employment.
Bank credit (monthly/quarterly data)
Private sector credit refers to the credit extended by commercial banks and other deposit-taking institutions (excluding central banks) to private non-financial firms and households. Included are all credit institutions: domestic and foreign owned as well as private and public ones.
Business credit includes credit extended by commercial banks and other deposit-taking institutions (excluding central banks) to private non-financial firms. Included are all credit institutions: domestic and foreign owned as well as private and public ones.
Household credit includes credit extended by commercial banks and other deposit-taking institutions (excluding central banks) to households. Included are all credit institutions: domestic and foreign owned as well as private and public ones.
Loans provided by commercial banks for the purchase of non-commercial real estate. In billion local currency units.
Loans provided by commercial banks to households and individuals for the purchase of goods and services, excluding real estate. In billion local currency units.
Interest rates (monthly/quarterly data)
The deposit interest rate is the average interest rate on one year term deposits offered by the commercial banks to the household sector.
The business credit interest rate is the average interest rate on the loan products offered by commercial banks to non-financial corporations. The business credit is a credit specifically intended for business purposes including secured and unsecured business loans to small or large business with variable or fixed interest rate.
The household credit interest rate is the average interest rate on loan products offered by commercial banks to the household sector including mortgage loans and consumer credits.
The mortgage credit interest rate is the average interest rate on mortgage loan products offered to individuals and households by the commercial banks in the country. The mortgage credit is a loan used to finance the purchase of real estate.
The consumer credit interest rate is the average interest rate on consumer loan products provided by commercial banks. These are loans provided by commercial banks to households and individuals for the purchase of goods and services, excluding real estate.
External sector (monthly/quarterly data)
The current account balance is the sum of net exports of goods and services, net primary income, and net secondary income.
Main economic indicators (annual data)
Economic growth: the rate of change of real GDP
Annual percentage growth rate of GDP at market prices based on constant local currency. Aggregates are based on constant 2010 U.S. dollars. GDP is the sum of gross value added by all resident producers in the economy plus any product taxes and minus any subsidies not included in the value of the products. It is calculated without making deductions for depreciation of fabricated assets or for depletion and degradation of natural resources.
Gross Domestic Product, billions of U.S. dollars
GDP at purchaser's prices is the sum of gross value added by all resident producers in the economy plus any product taxes and minus any subsidies not included in the value of the products. It is calculated without making deductions for depreciation of fabricated assets or for depletion and degradation of natural resources. Data are in current U.S. dollars. Dollar figures for GDP are converted from domestic currencies using single year official exchange rates. For a few countries where the official exchange rate does not reflect the rate effectively applied to actual foreign exchange transactions, an alternative conversion factor is used.
Gross Domestic Product, billions of 2010 U.S. dollars
GDP at purchaser's prices is the sum of gross value added by all resident producers in the economy plus any product taxes and minus any subsidies not included in the value of the products. It is calculated without making deductions for depreciation of fabricated assets or for depletion and degradation of natural resources. Data are in constant 2010 U.S. dollars. Dollar figures for GDP are converted from domestic currencies using 2010 official exchange rates. For a few countries where the official exchange rate does not reflect the rate effectively applied to actual foreign exchange transactions, an alternative conversion factor is used.
GDP per capita, current U.S. dollars
GDP per capita is gross domestic product divided by midyear population. GDP is the sum of gross value added by all resident producers in the economy plus any product taxes and minus any subsidies not included in the value of the products. It is calculated without making deductions for depreciation of fabricated assets or for depletion and degradation of natural resources. Data are in current U.S. dollars.
GDP per capita, Purchasing Power Parity
GDP per capita based on purchasing power parity (PPP). PPP GDP is gross domestic product converted to international dollars using purchasing power parity rates. An international dollar has the same purchasing power over GDP as the U.S. dollar has in the United States. GDP at purchaser's prices is the sum of gross value added by all resident producers in the economy plus any product taxes and minus any subsidies not included in the value of the products. It is calculated without making deductions for depreciation of fabricated assets or for depletion and degradation of natural resources. Data are in constant 2011 international dollars.
GDP per capita, constant 2010 dollars
GDP per capita is gross domestic product divided by midyear population. GDP is the sum of gross value added by all resident producers in the economy plus any product taxes and minus any subsidies not included in the value of the products. It is calculated without making deductions for depreciation of fabricated assets or for depletion and degradation of natural resources. Data are in constant 2010 U.S. dollars.
Human Development Index (0 - 1)
The Human Development Index measures three basic dimensions of human development: long and healthy life, knowledge, and a decent standard of living. Four indicators are used to calculate the index: life expectancy at birth, mean years of schooling, expected years of schooling, and gross national income per capita.
Inflation: percent change in the Consumer Price Index
Inflation as measured by the consumer price index reflects the annual percentage change in the cost to the average consumer of acquiring a basket of goods and services that may be fixed or changed at specified intervals, such as yearly. The Laspeyres formula is generally used.
Capital investment as percent of GDP
Gross capital formation (formerly gross domestic investment) consists of outlays on additions to the fixed assets of the economy plus net changes in the level of inventories. Fixed assets include land improvements (fences, ditches, drains, and so on); plant, machinery, and equipment purchases; and the construction of roads, railways, and the like, including schools, offices, hospitals, private residential dwellings, and commercial and industrial buildings. Inventories are stocks of goods held by firms to meet temporary or unexpected fluctuations in production or sales, and "work in progress." According to the 1993 SNA, net acquisitions of valuables are also considered capital formation.
Capital investment, billion USD
Gross capital formation (formerly gross domestic investment) consists of outlays on additions to the fixed assets of the economy plus net changes in the level of inventories. Fixed assets include land improvements (fences, ditches, drains, and so on); plant, machinery, and equipment purchases; and the construction of roads, railways, and the like, including schools, offices, hospitals, private residential dwellings, and commercial and industrial buildings. Inventories are stocks of goods held by firms to meet temporary or unexpected fluctuations in production or sales, and "work in progress." According to the 1993 SNA, net acquisitions of valuables are also considered capital formation. Data are in current U.S. dollars.
Household consumption as percent of GDP
Household final consumption expenditure (formerly private consumption) is the market value of all goods and services, including durable products (such as cars, washing machines, and home computers), purchased by households. It excludes purchases of dwellings but includes imputed rent for owner-occupied dwellings. It also includes payments and fees to governments to obtain permits and licenses. Here, household consumption expenditure includes the expenditures of nonprofit institutions serving households, even when reported separately by the country. This item also includes any statistical discrepancy in the use of resources relative to the supply of resources.
Household consumption, billion USD
Household debt to GDP, in percent
Savings as percent of GDP
Gross savings are calculated as gross national income less total consumption, plus net transfers.
Savings, billion USD
Gross savings are calculated as gross national income less total consumption, plus net transfers. Data are in current U.S. dollars.
External debt, percent of Gross National Income
Total external debt stocks to gross national income. Total external debt is debt owed to nonresidents repayable in currency, goods, or services. Total external debt is the sum of public, publicly guaranteed, and private nonguaranteed long-term debt, use of IMF credit, and short-term debt. Short-term debt includes all debt having an original maturity of one year or less and interest in arrears on long-term debt. GNI (formerly GNP) is the sum of value added by all resident producers plus any product taxes (less subsidies) not included in the valuation of output plus net receipts of primary income (compensation of employees and property income) from abroad.
Government spending as percent of GDP
General government final consumption expenditure (formerly general government consumption) includes all government current expenditures for purchases of goods and services (including compensation of employees). It also includes most expenditures on national defense and security, but excludes government military expenditures that are part of government capital formation.
Government spending, billion USD
General government final consumption expenditure (formerly general government consumption) includes all government current expenditures for purchases of goods and services (including compensation of employees). It also includes most expenditures on national defense and security, but excludes government military expenditures that are part of government capital formation. Data are in current U.S. dollars.
Government debt as percent of GDP
Debt is the entire stock of direct government fixed-term contractual obligations to others outstanding on a particular date. It includes domestic and foreign liabilities such as currency and money deposits, securities other than shares, and loans. It is the gross amount of government liabilities reduced by the amount of equity and financial derivatives held by the government. Because debt is a stock rather than a flow, it is measured as of a given date, usually the last day of the fiscal year.
Value added by industry as percent of GDP
Industry corresponds to ISIC divisions 10-45 and includes manufacturing (ISIC divisions 15-37). It comprises value added in mining, manufacturing (also reported as a separate subgroup), construction, electricity, water, and gas. Value added is the net output of a sector after adding up all outputs and subtracting intermediate inputs. It is calculated without making deductions for depreciation of fabricated assets or depletion and degradation of natural resources. The origin of value added is determined by the International Standard Industrial Classification (ISIC), revision 3. Note: For VAB countries, gross value added at factor cost is used as the denominator.
Value added by the manufacturing sector as percent of GDP
Manufacturing refers to industries belonging to ISIC divisions 15-37. Value added is the net output of a sector after adding up all outputs and subtracting intermediate inputs. It is calculated without making deductions for depreciation of fabricated assets or depletion and degradation of natural resources. The origin of value added is determined by the International Standard Industrial Classification (ISIC), revision 3. Note: For VAB countries, gross value added at factor cost is used as the denominator.
Value added in the services sector as percent of GDP
Services correspond to ISIC divisions 50-99 and they include value added in wholesale and retail trade (including hotels and restaurants), transport, and government, financial, professional, and personal services such as education, health care, and real estate services. Also included are imputed bank service charges, import duties, and any statistical discrepancies noted by national compilers as well as discrepancies arising from rescaling. Value added is the net output of a sector after adding up all outputs and subtracting intermediate inputs. It is calculated without making deductions for depreciation of fabricated assets or depletion and degradation of natural resources. The industrial origin of value added is determined by the International Standard Industrial Classification (ISIC), revision 3. Note: For VAB countries, gross value added at factor cost is used as the denominator.
Industry value added, billion USD
Manufacturing value added, billion USD
Services value added, billion USD
Shares of world totals (annual data)
Percent of world population
The population share of a particular country is measured as its population as percent of the total world population in a given year. Total population is based on the de facto definition of population, which counts all residents regardless of legal status or citizenship--except for refugees not permanently settled in the country of asylum, who are generally considered part of the population of their country of origin. The values shown are midyear estimates.
Percent of world GDP
We calculated the world GDP as the sum of the GDP of all countries expressed in current USD. The share of GDP is the GDP of a particular country as percent of the world GDP. GDP at purchaser's prices is the sum of gross value added by all resident producers in the economy plus any product taxes and minus any subsidies not included in the value of the products. It is calculated without making deductions for depreciation of fabricated assets or for depletion and degradation of natural resources. Data are in current U.S. dollars. Dollar figures for GDP are converted from domestic currencies using single year official exchange rates. For a few countries where the official exchange rate does not reflect the rate effectively applied to actual foreign exchange transactions, an alternative conversion factor is used.
Percent of world exports
The share of world exports equals the exports of a particular country as percent of the total exports of all countries around the world. Exports of goods and services represent the value of all goods and other market services provided to the rest of the world. They include the value of merchandise, freight, insurance, transport, travel, royalties, license fees, and other services, such as communication, construction, financial, information, business, personal, and government services. They exclude compensation of employees and investment income (formerly called factor services) and transfer payments. Data are in current U.S. dollars.
Percent of world imports
The share of world exports equals the exports of a particular country as percent of the total exports of all countries around the world. Imports of goods and services represent the value of all goods and other market services received from the rest of the world. They include the value of merchandise, freight, insurance, transport, travel, royalties, license fees, and other services, such as communication, construction, financial, information, business, personal, and government services. They exclude compensation of employees and investment income (formerly called factor services) and transfer payments. Data are in current U.S. dollars.
Percent of world oil reserves
The share of world oil reserves is calculated as the proven oil reserves of a country as percent of the total proven oil reserves for the world.
Percent of world Foreign Direct Investment
Foreign direct investment refers to direct investment equity flows in the reporting economy. It is the sum of equity capital, reinvestment of earnings, and other capital. Direct investment is a category of cross-border investment associated with a resident in one economy having control or a significant degree of influence on the management of an enterprise that is resident in another economy. Ownership of 10 percent or more of the ordinary shares of voting stock is the criterion for determining the existence of a direct investment relationship. Data are in current U.S. dollars.
International transactions (annual data)
Exchange rate: local currency units per U.S. dollar
Official exchange rate refers to the exchange rate determined by national authorities or to the rate determined in the legally sanctioned exchange market. It is calculated as an annual average based on monthly averages (local currency units relative to the U.S. dollar).
Terms of trade, base year = 2000
Net barter terms of trade index is calculated as the percentage ratio of the export unit value indexes to the import unit value indexes, measured relative to the base year 2000. Unit value indexes are based on data reported by countries that demonstrate consistency under UNCTAD quality controls, supplemented by UNCTAD's estimates using the previous year’s trade values at the Standard International Trade Classification three-digit level as weights. To improve data coverage, especially for the latest periods, UNCTAD constructs a set of average prices indexes at the three-digit product classification of the Standard International Trade Classification revision 3 using UNCTAD’s Commodity Price Statistics, interna­tional and national sources, and UNCTAD secretariat estimates and calculates unit value indexes at the country level using the current year's trade values as weights.
Trade openness: exports plus imports as percent of GDP
Exports of goods and services as percent of GDP
Exports of goods and services represent the value of all goods and other market services provided to the rest of the world. They include the value of merchandise, freight, insurance, transport, travel, royalties, license fees, and other services, such as communication, construction, financial, information, business, personal, and government services. They exclude compensation of employees and investment income (formerly called factor services) and transfer payments.
Exports of goods and services, billion USD
Exports of goods and services, annual growth
Annual growth rate of exports of goods and services based on constant local currency. Aggregates are based on constant 2010 U.S. dollars. Exports of goods and services represent the value of all goods and other market services provided to the rest of the world. They include the value of merchandise, freight, insurance, transport, travel, royalties, license fees, and other services, such as communication, construction, financial, information, business, personal, and government services. They exclude compensation of employees and investment income (formerly called factor services) and transfer payments.
Imports of goods and services as percent of GDP
Imports of goods and services represent the value of all goods and other market services received from the rest of the world. They include the value of merchandise, freight, insurance, transport, travel, royalties, license fees, and other services, such as communication, construction, financial, information, business, personal, and government services. They exclude compensation of employees and investment income (formerly called factor services) and transfer payments.
Imports of goods and services, billion USD
Foreign Direct Investment, percent of GDP
Foreign direct investment are the net inflows of investment to acquire a lasting management interest (10 percent or more of voting stock) in an enterprise operating in an economy other than that of the investor. It is the sum of equity capital, reinvestment of earnings, other long-term capital, and short-term capital as shown in the balance of payments. This series shows net inflows (new investment inflows less disinvestment) in the reporting economy from foreign investors, and is divided by GDP.
Foreign Direct Investment, billion USD
Net portfolio equity inflows
Portfolio equity includes net inflows from equity securities other than those recorded as direct investment and including shares, stocks, depository receipts (American or global), and direct purchases of shares in local stock markets by foreign investors. Data are in current U.S. dollars.
Current account balance as percent of GDP
Current account balance is the sum of net exports of goods and services, net primary income, and net secondary income.
Current account balance, billion USD
Trade balance as percent of GDP
External balance on goods and services (formerly resource balance) equals exports of goods and services minus imports of goods and services (previously nonfactor services).
Trade balance, billion USD
Foreign exchange reserves including gold, billion USD
Total reserves comprise holdings of monetary gold, special drawing rights, reserves of IMF members held by the IMF, and holdings of foreign exchange under the control of monetary authorities. The gold component of these reserves is valued at year-end (December 31) London prices. Data are in current U.S. dollars.
Remittances as percent of GDP
Personal remittances comprise personal transfers and compensation of employees. Personal transfers consist of all current transfers in cash or in kind made or received by resident households to or from nonresident households. Personal transfers thus include all current transfers between resident and nonresident individuals. Compensation of employees refers to the income of border, seasonal, and other short-term workers who are employed in an economy where they are not resident and of residents employed by nonresident entities. Data are the sum of two items defined in the sixth edition of the IMF's Balance of Payments Manual: personal transfers and compensation of employees.
Remittances, million USD
Personal transfers consist of all current transfers in cash or in kind made or received by resident households to or from nonresident households. Personal transfers thus include all current transfers between resident and nonresident individuals. Data are in current U.S. dollars.
Competitiveness - World Economic Forum index (1-7)
The Global Competitiveness index is composed of 12 pillars of competitiveness. The pillars are organized as followed: Basic requirements (Institutions, Infrastructure, Macroeconomic Stability, Health and Primary Education); Efficiency enhancers (Higher Education and Training, Goods Market Efficiency, Labour Market Efficiency, Financial Market Sophistication, Technological Readiness, Market Size), and Innovation and sophistication factors (Business Sophistication, Innovation).
FDI Confidence Index from A.T. Kearney (0-3)
The FDI Confidence Index is an indicator created by A.T. Kearney, a global management consulting firm operating in 40 countries across the world. The index ranks countries on a scale from 0 to 3 based on their attractiveness for foreign direct investments. A score of 3 represents the highest level of confidence. The index is constructed using data from a survey capturing the opinions of senior executives and regional and business leaders from 27 countries with high FDI outword flows. Within the survey, the respondents are asked what is the likelihood to make a direct investment in a given country over the next three years: high, medium, low or "no interest". The individual responses are aggregated to produce a country score.
Labor force (annual data)
Labor force, million people
Labor force comprises people ages 15 and older who supply labor for the production of goods and services during a specified period. It includes people who are currently employed and people who are unemployed but seeking work as well as first-time job-seekers. Not everyone who works is included, however. Unpaid workers, family workers, and students are often omitted, and some countries do not count members of the armed forces. Labor force size tends to vary during the year as seasonal workers enter and leave.
Unemployment rate
Unemployment refers to the share of the labor force that is without work but available for and seeking employment.
Unemployment rate for females
Unemployment refers to the share of the labor force that is without work but available for and seeking employment.
Unemployment rate for males
Unemployment refers to the share of the labor force that is without work but available for and seeking employment.
Youth unemployment, ages 15-24
Youth unemployment refers to the share of the labor force ages 15-24 without work but available for and seeking employment.
Labor force participation rate
Labor force participation rate is the proportion of the population ages 15 and older that is economically active: all people who supply labor for the production of goods and services during a specified period.
Labor force, percent female
Female labor force as a percentage of the total show the extent to which women are active in the labor force. Labor force comprises people ages 15 and older who supply labor for the production of goods and services during a specified period.
Female labor force participation rate
Labor force participation rate is the proportion of the population ages 15 and older that is economically active: all people who supply labor for the production of goods and services during a specified period.
Male labor force participation rate
Labor force participation rate is the proportion of the population ages 15 and older that is economically active: all people who supply labor for the production of goods and services during a specified period.
Dependent people as percent of the working age population
Age dependency ratio is the ratio of dependents--people younger than 15 or older than 64--to the working-age population--those ages 15-64. Data are shown as the proportion of dependents per 100 working-age population.
Infrastructure and transport (annual data)
Internet users, per 100 people
Internet users are individuals who have used the Internet (from any location) in the last 12 months. Internet can be used via a computer, mobile phone, personal digital assistant, games machine, digital TV etc.
Broadband internet subscribers
Fixed broadband subscriptions refers to fixed subscriptions to high-speed access to the public Internet (a TCP/IP connection), at downstream speeds equal to, or greater than, 256 kbit/s. This includes cable modem, DSL, fiber-to-the-home/building, other fixed (wired)-broadband subscriptions, satellite broadband and terrestrial fixed wireless broadband. This total is measured irrespective of the method of payment. It excludes subscriptions that have access to data communications (including the Internet) via mobile-cellular networks. It should include fixed WiMAX and any other fixed wireless technologies. It includes both residential subscriptions and subscriptions for organizations.
Fixed broadband internet subscribers per 100 people
Fixed broadband subscriptions refers to fixed subscriptions to high-speed access to the public Internet (a TCP/IP connection), at downstream speeds equal to, or greater than, 256 kbit/s. This includes cable modem, DSL, fiber-to-the-home/building, other fixed (wired)-broadband subscriptions, satellite broadband and terrestrial fixed wireless broadband. This total is measured irrespective of the method of payment. It excludes subscriptions that have access to data communications (including the Internet) via mobile-cellular networks. It should include fixed WiMAX and any other fixed wireless technologies. It includes both residential subscriptions and subscriptions for organizations.
Mobile phone subscribers, in millions
Mobile cellular telephone subscriptions are subscriptions to a public mobile telephone service that provide access to the PSTN using cellular technology. The indicator includes (and is split into) the number of postpaid subscriptions, and the number of active prepaid accounts (i.e. that have been used during the last three months). The indicator applies to all mobile cellular subscriptions that offer voice communications. It excludes subscriptions via data cards or USB modems, subscriptions to public mobile data services, private trunked mobile radio, telepoint, radio paging and telemetry services.
Mobile phone subscribers, per 100 people
Mobile cellular telephone subscriptions are subscriptions to a public mobile telephone service that provide access to the PSTN using cellular technology. The indicator includes (and is split into) the number of postpaid subscriptions, and the number of active prepaid accounts (i.e. that have been used during the last three months). The indicator applies to all mobile cellular subscriptions that offer voice communications. It excludes subscriptions via data cards or USB modems, subscriptions to public mobile data services, private trunked mobile radio, telepoint, radio paging and telemetry services.
Airline passengers of domestically owned airlines
Air passengers carried include both domestic and international aircraft passengers of air carriers registered in the country.
Railroad lines, total length in km
Rail lines are the length of railway route available for train service, irrespective of the number of parallel tracks.
Volume of goods transported by railways
Goods transported by railway are the volume of goods transported by railway, measured in metric tons times kilometers traveled.
Railway passengers
Passengers carried by railway are the number of passengers transported by rail times kilometers traveled.
Number of 20-foot containers passing through the ports
Port container traffic measures the flow of containers from land to sea transport modes., and vice versa, in twenty-foot equivalent units (TEUs), a standard-size container. Data refer to coastal shipping as well as international journeys. Transshipment traffic is counted as two lifts at the intermediate port (once to off-load and again as an outbound lift) and includes empty units.
Quality of air transport infrastructure, 1(low) - 7(high)
The Quality of air transport infrastructure indicator is one of the components of the Global Competitiveness Index published annually by the World Economic Forum (WEF). It represents an assessment of the quality of airports in a given country based on data from the WEF Executive Opinion Survey, a long-running and extensive survey tapping the opinions of over 14,000 business leaders in 144 countries. The score for air transport infrastructure quality is based on only one question. The respondents are asked to rate the passenger air transport in their country of operation on a scale from 1 (underdeveloped) to 7 (extensive and efficient by international standards). The individual responses are aggregated to produce a country score.
Quality of roads, 1(low) - 7(high)
The Road quality indicator is one of the components of the Global Competitiveness Index published annually by the World Economic Forum (WEF). It represents an assessment of the quality of roads in a given country based on data from the WEF Executive Opinion Survey, a long-running and extensive survey tapping the opinions of over 14,000 business leaders in 144 countries. The road quality indicator score is based on only one question. The respondents are asked to rate the roads in their country of operation on a scale from 1 (underdeveloped) to 7 (extensive and efficient by international standards). The individual responses are aggregated to produce a country score.
Quality of railroad infrastructure, 1(low) - 7(high)
The Quality of railroad infrastrucutre indicator is one of the components of the Global Competitiveness Index published annually by the World Economic Forum (WEF). It represents an assessment of the quality of the railroad system in a given country based on data from the WEF Executive Opinion Survey, a long-running and extensive survey tapping the opinions of over 14,000 business leaders in 144 countries. The score for railroad infrastrucutre quality is based on only one question. The respondents are asked to rate the railroads in their country of operation on a scale from 1 (underdeveloped) to 7 (extensive and efficient by international standards). The individual responses are aggregated to produce a country score.
Quality of port infrastructure, 1(low) - 7(high)
The Quality of port infrastrucutre indicator is one of the components of the Global Competitiveness Index published annually by the World Economic Forum (WEF). It represents an assessment of the quality of port facilities in a given country based on data from the WEF Executive Opinion Survey, a long-running and extensive survey tapping the opinions of over 14,000 business leaders in 144 countries. The score for port infrastrucutre quality is based on only one question. The respondents are asked to rate the port facilities and inland waterways in their country of operation on a scale from 1 (underdeveloped) to 7 (extensive and efficient by international standards). For landlocked countries, the respondents are asked to rate the access to port facilities and inland waterways on a scale from 1 (impossible) to 7 (easy). The individual responses are aggregated to produce a country score.
Mobile network coverage, percent of the population
Mobile network coverage measures the percentage of inhabitants who are within range of a mobile cellular signal, irrespective of whether or not they are subscribers. This is calculated by dividing the number of inhabitants within range of a mobile cellular signal by the total population.
International Internet bandwidth per Internet user, kb/s
International Internet bandwidth is the sum of the capacity of all Internet exchanges offering international bandwidth measured in kilobits per second (kb/s).
New commercial vehicle sales, numbers per year
New passenger car sales, numbers per year
Energy and environment (annual data)
Gasoline prices at the pump, in dollars per liter
Fuel prices refer to the pump prices of the most widely sold grade of gasoline. Prices have been converted from the local currency to U.S. dollars.
Diesel prices at the pump, in dollars per liter
Fuel prices refer to the pump prices of the most widely sold grade of diesel fuel. Prices have been converted from the local currency to U.S. dollars.
Energy use per capita
Energy use refers to use of primary energy before transformation to other end-use fuels, which is equal to indigenous production plus imports and stock changes, minus exports and fuels supplied to ships and aircraft engaged in international transport.
Alternative and nuclear energy, percent of total energy use
Clean energy is noncarbohydrate energy that does not produce carbon dioxide when generated. It includes hydropower and nuclear, geothermal, and solar power, among others.
Energy use per $1000 of GDP
Energy use per PPP GDP is the kilogram of oil equivalent of energy use per constant PPP GDP. Energy use refers to use of primary energy before transformation to other end-use fuels, which is equal to indigenous production plus imports and stock changes, minus exports and fuels supplied to ships and aircraft engaged in international transport. PPP GDP is gross domestic product converted to 2011 constant international dollars using purchasing power parity rates. An international dollar has the same purchasing power over GDP as a U.S. dollar has in the United States.
Electricity production from renewable sources, million kWh
Electricity production from renewable sources, excluding hydroelectric, includes geothermal, solar, tides, wind, biomass, and biofuels.
Carbon dioxide emissions, thousands of tonnes
Carbon dioxide emissions are those stemming from the burning of fossil fuels and the manufacture of cement. They include carbon dioxide produced during consumption of solid, liquid, and gas fuels and gas flaring.
Carbon dioxide emissions per capita
Carbon dioxide emissions are those stemming from the burning of fossil fuels and the manufacture of cement. They include carbon dioxide produced during consumption of solid, liquid, and gas fuels and gas flaring.
Energy imports as percent of total energy use
Net energy imports are estimated as energy use less production, both measured in oil equivalents. A negative value indicates that the country is a net exporter. Energy use refers to use of primary energy before transformation to other end-use fuels, which is equal to indigenous production plus imports and stock changes, minus exports and fuels supplied to ships and aircraft engaged in international transport.
GDP per unit of energy used
GDP per unit of energy use is the PPP GDP per kilogram of oil equivalent of energy use. PPP GDP is gross domestic product converted to 2011 constant international dollars using purchasing power parity rates. An international dollar has the same purchasing power over GDP as a U.S. dollar has in the United States.
Income from natural resources, percent of GDP
Total natural resources rents are the sum of oil rents, natural gas rents, coal rents (hard and soft), mineral rents, and forest rents.
Revenue minus production cost of oil, percent of GDP
Oil rents are the difference between the value of crude oil production at world prices and total costs of production.
Revenue minus production cost of natural gas, percent of GDP
Natural gas rents are the difference between the value of natural gas production at world prices and total costs of production.
Access to electricity, percent of the population
Access to electricity is the percentage of population with access to electricity. Electrification data are collected from industry, national surveys and international sources.
Agriculture (annual data)
Forest area, percent of total land area
Forest area is land under natural or planted stands of trees of at least 5 meters in situ, whether productive or not, and excludes tree stands in agricultural production systems (for example, in fruit plantations and agroforestry systems) and trees in urban parks and gardens.
Percent agricultural land
Agricultural land refers to the share of land area that is arable, under permanent crops, and under permanent pastures. Arable land includes land defined by the FAO as land under temporary crops (double-cropped areas are counted once), temporary meadows for mowing or for pasture, land under market or kitchen gardens, and land temporarily fallow. Land abandoned as a result of shifting cultivation is excluded. Land under permanent crops is land cultivated with crops that occupy the land for long periods and need not be replanted after each harvest, such as cocoa, coffee, and rubber. This category includes land under flowering shrubs, fruit trees, nut trees, and vines, but excludes land under trees grown for wood or timber. Permanent pasture is land used for five or more years for forage, including natural and cultivated crops.
Employment in agriculture, % of total employment
Employment is defined as persons of working age who were engaged in any activity to produce goods or provide services for pay or profit, whether at work during the reference period or not at work due to temporary absence from a job, or to working-time arrangement. The agriculture sector consists of activities in agriculture, hunting, forestry and fishing, in accordance with division 1 (ISIC 2) or categories A-B (ISIC 3) or category A (ISIC 4).
Value added in the agricultural sector as percent of GDP
Agriculture corresponds to ISIC divisions 1-5 and includes forestry, hunting, and fishing, as well as cultivation of crops and livestock production. Value added is the net output of a sector after adding up all outputs and subtracting intermediate inputs. It is calculated without making deductions for depreciation of fabricated assets or depletion and degradation of natural resources. The origin of value added is determined by the International Standard Industrial Classification (ISIC), revision 3. Note: For VAB countries, gross value added at factor cost is used as the denominator.
Agriculture value added, billion USD
Agriculture corresponds to ISIC divisions 1-5 and includes forestry, hunting, and fishing, as well as cultivation of crops and livestock production. Value added is the net output of a sector after adding up all outputs and subtracting intermediate inputs. It is calculated without making deductions for depreciation of fabricated assets or depletion and degradation of natural resources. The origin of value added is determined by the International Standard Industrial Classification (ISIC), revision 3. Data are in current U.S. dollars.
Agriculture value added per worker, constant USD
Agriculture value added per worker is a measure of agricultural productivity. Value added in agriculture measures the output of the agricultural sector (ISIC divisions 1-5) less the value of intermediate inputs. Agriculture comprises value added from forestry, hunting, and fishing as well as cultivation of crops and livestock production. Data are in constant 2010 U.S. dollars.
Agricultural land, sq. km.
Agricultural land refers to the share of land area that is arable, under permanent crops, and under permanent pastures. Arable land includes land defined by the FAO as land under temporary crops (double-cropped areas are counted once), temporary meadows for mowing or for pasture, land under market or kitchen gardens, and land temporarily fallow. Land abandoned as a result of shifting cultivation is excluded. Land under permanent crops is land cultivated with crops that occupy the land for long periods and need not be replanted after each harvest, such as cocoa, coffee, and rubber. This category includes land under flowering shrubs, fruit trees, nut trees, and vines, but excludes land under trees grown for wood or timber. Permanent pasture is land used for five or more years for forage, including natural and cultivated crops.
Arable land, percent of total land area
Arable land includes land defined by the FAO as land under temporary crops (double-cropped areas are counted once), temporary meadows for mowing or for pasture, land under market or kitchen gardens, and land temporarily fallow. Land abandoned as a result of shifting cultivation is excluded.
Precipitation, mm per year
Average precipitation is the long-term average in depth (over space and time) of annual precipitation in the country. Precipitation is defined as any kind of water that falls from clouds as a liquid or a solid.
Cereal yield, kg per hectar
Cereal yield, measured as kilograms per hectare of harvested land, includes wheat, rice, maize, barley, oats, rye, millet, sorghum, buckwheat, and mixed grains. Production data on cereals relate to crops harvested for dry grain only. Cereal crops harvested for hay or harvested green for food, feed, or silage and those used for grazing are excluded. The FAO allocates production data to the calendar year in which the bulk of the harvest took place. Most of a crop harvested near the end of a year will be used in the following year.
Crop production index (2004-2006 = 100)
Crop production index shows agricultural production for each year relative to the base period 2004-2006. It includes all crops except fodder crops. Regional and income group aggregates for the FAO's production indexes are calculated from the underlying values in international dollars, normalized to the base period 2004-2006.
Fertilizer use, kg per hectare of arable land
Fertilizer consumption measures the quantity of plant nutrients used per unit of arable land. Fertilizer products cover nitrogenous, potash, and phosphate fertilizers (including ground rock phosphate). Traditional nutrients--animal and plant manures--are not included. For the purpose of data dissemination, FAO has adopted the concept of a calendar year (January to December). Some countries compile fertilizer data on a calendar year basis, while others are on a split-year basis. Arable land includes land defined by the FAO as land under temporary crops (double-cropped areas are counted once), temporary meadows for mowing or for pasture, land under market or kitchen gardens, and land temporarily fallow. Land abandoned as a result of shifting cultivation is excluded.
Food production index (2004-2006 = 100)
Food production index covers food crops that are considered edible and that contain nutrients. Coffee and tea are excluded because, although edible, they have no nutritive value.
Forest area, sq. km
Forest area is land under natural or planted stands of trees of at least 5 meters in situ, whether productive or not, and excludes tree stands in agricultural production systems (for example, in fruit plantations and agroforestry systems) and trees in urban parks and gardens.
Livestock production index (2004-2006 = 100)
Livestock production index includes meat and milk from all sources, dairy products such as cheese, and eggs, honey, raw silk, wool, and hides and skins.
Rural population, percent of total population
Rural population refers to people living in rural areas as defined by national statistical offices. It is calculated as the difference between total population and urban population.
Banking system access (annual data)
ATM machines per 100,000 adults
Number of ATMs per 100,000 adults. Automated teller machines are computerized telecommunications devices that provide clients of a financial institution with access to financial transactions in a public place.
Bank accounts per 1000 adults
Number of depositors with commercial banks per 1,000 adults.
Percent of people aged 15+ who have a debit card
The percentage of respondents with a debit card (% age 15+). Data are from the World Bank Global Financial Inclusion survey.
Small firms with bank credit, percent of all small firms
Percentage of small firms (5-19 workers) in the formal sector with a line of credit or a loan from a (formal) financial institution, such as a bank, credit union, microfinance institution, or cooperative.
Percent of people aged 15+ who have a credit card
The percentage of respondents with a credit card (% age 15+). The data are from the World bank Global Financial Inclusion survey.
Firms using bank credit to finance investment, percent of all firms
Percentage of firms using banks to finance purchases of fixed assets.
Bank branches per 100,000 people
Number of commercial bank branches per 100,000 adults.
Banking system stability (annual data)
Non-performing loans as percent of all bank loans
Bank nonperforming loans to total gross loans are the value of nonperforming loans divided by the total value of the loan portfolio (including nonperforming loans before the deduction of specific loan-loss provisions). The loan amount recorded as nonperforming should be the gross value of the loan as recorded on the balance sheet, not just the amount that is overdue.
Banking system z-scores
The index captures the probability of default of a country's banking system. Z-score compares the buffer of a country's banking system (capitalization and returns) with the volatility of those returns. It is estimated as (ROA+(equity/assets))/sd(ROA); sd(ROA) is the standard deviation of ROA. ROA, equity, and assets are country-level aggregate figures. Calculated from underlying bank-by-bank unconsolidated data from Bankscope.
Banking system capital, percent of assets
Ratio of bank capital and reserves to total assets. Capital and reserves include funds contributed by owners, retained earnings, general and special reserves, provisions, and valuation adjustments. Capital includes tier 1 capital (paid-up shares and common stock), which is a common feature in all countries' banking systems, and total regulatory capital, which includes several specified types of subordinated debt instruments that need not be repaid if the funds are required to maintain minimum capital levels (these comprise tier 2 and tier 3 capital). Total assets include all nonfinancial and financial assets. Reported by IMF staff. Note that due to differences in national accounting, taxation, and supervisory regimes, these data are not strictly comparable across countries.
Bank credit as percent of bank deposits
The financial resources provided to the private sector by domestic money banks as a share of total deposits. Domestic money banks comprise commercial banks and other financial institutions that accept transferable deposits, such as demand deposits. Total deposits include demand, time and saving deposits in deposit money banks.
Banking system regulatory capital to risk-weighted assets
The capital adequacy of deposit takers. It is a ratio of total regulatory capital to its assets held, weighted according to the risk of those assets.
Bank liquid assets to deposits and short-term funding
The ratio of the value of liquid assets (easily converted to cash) to short-term funding plus total deposits. Liquid assets include cash and due from banks, trading securities and at fair value through income, loans and advances to banks, reverse repos and cash collaterals. Deposits and short term funding includes total customer deposits (current, savings and term) and short term borrowing (money market instruments, CDs and other deposits).
Banking system efficiency (annual data)
Bank interest revenue, percent of interest-bearing assets
Accounting value of bank's net interest revenue as a share of its average interest-bearing (total earning) assets. The numerator and denominator are aggregated on the country level before division. Note that banks used in the calculation might differ between indicators. Calculated from underlying bank-by-bank unconsolidated data from Bankscope.
Bank overhead costs, percent of total assets
Operating expenses of a bank as a share of the value of all assets held. Total assets include total earning assets, cash and due from banks, foreclosed real estate, fixed assets, goodwill, other intangibles, current tax assets, deferred tax assets, discontinued operations and other assets. The numerator and denominator are first aggregated on the country level before division. Note that banks used in the calculation might differ between indicators. Calculated from underlying bank-by-bank unconsolidated data from Bankscope.
Bank return on assets, in percent
Commercial banks’ pre-tax income to yearly averaged total assets. The numerator and denominator are first aggregated on the country level before division. Note that banks used in the calculation might differ between indicators. Calculated from underlying bank-by-bank unconsolidated data from Bankscope.
Bank return on equity, in percent
Commercial banks’ pre-tax income to yearly averaged equity. The numerator and denominator are first aggregated on the country level before division. Note that banks used in the calculation might differ between indicators. Calculated from underlying bank-by-bank unconsolidated data from Bankscope.
Bank lending-deposit interest rate spread
Difference between the lending rate and the deposit rate. The lending rate is the rate charged by banks on loans to the private sector and the deposit interest rate is the rate offered by commercial banks on three-month deposits.
Bank non-interest income to total income, in percent
Bank’s income that has been generated by noninterest related activities as a percentage of total income (net-interest income plus noninterest income). Noninterest related income includes net gains on trading and derivatives, net gains on other securities, net fees and commissions and other operating income. The number is only calculated when net-interest income is not negative. Note that banks used in the calculation might differ between indicators. Calculated from underlying bank-by-bank unconsolidated data from Bankscope.
Bank cost to income ratio, in percent
Operating expenses of a bank as a share of the sum of net-interest revenue and other operating income. The numerator and denominator are first aggregated on the country level before division. Note that banks used in the calculation might differ between indicators. Calculated from underlying bank-by-bank unconsolidated data from Bankscope.
Banking system depth (annual data)
Bank credit to the private sector as percent of GDP
Domestic credit to private sector by banks refers to financial resources provided to the private sector by other depository corporations (deposit taking corporations except central banks), such as through loans, purchases of nonequity securities, and trade credits and other accounts receivable, that establish a claim for repayment. For some countries these claims include credit to public enterprises.
Bank credit to government and public enterprises, percent of GDP
Raw data are from the electronic version of the IMF’s International Financial Statistics. (IFS line 22A + line 22B + line 22C) / GDP. Local currency GDP is from IFS (line 99B..ZF or, if not available, line 99B.CZF).
Bank assets, percent of GDP
Total assets held by deposit money banks as a share of GDP. Assets include claims on domestic real nonfinancial sector which includes central, state and local governments, nonfinancial public enterprises and private sector. Deposit money banks comprise commercial banks and other financial institutions that accept transferable deposits, such as demand deposits.
Liquid liabilities, percent of GDP
Ratio of liquid liabilities to GDP. Liquid liabilities are also known as broad money, or M3. They are the sum of currency and deposits in the central bank (M0), plus transferable deposits and electronic currency (M1), plus time and savings deposits, foreign currency transferable deposits, certificates of deposit, and securities repurchase agreements (M2), plus travelers checks, foreign currency time deposits, commercial paper, and shares of mutual funds or market funds held by residents.
Domestic credit to the private sector, percent of GDP
Domestic credit to private sector refers to financial resources provided to the private sector, such as through loans, purchases of nonequity securities, and trade credits and other accounts receivable, that establish a claim for repayment. For some countries these claims include credit to public enterprises.
Financial system deposits, percent of GDP
Demand, time and saving deposits in deposit money banks and other financial institutions as a share of GDP.
Banking system: other indicators (annual data)
Interest rates on bank credit to the private sector
Lending rate is the bank rate that usually meets the short- and medium-term financing needs of the private sector. This rate is normally differentiated according to creditworthiness of borrowers and objectives of financing. The terms and conditions attached to these rates differ by country, however, limiting their comparability.
Real interest rate: Bank lending rate minus inflation
Real interest rate is the lending interest rate adjusted for inflation as measured by the GDP deflator. The terms and conditions attached to lending rates differ by country, however, limiting their comparability.
Credit information sharing index, 0 (low) - 8 (high)
Depth of credit information index measures rules affecting the scope, accessibility, and quality of credit information available through public or private credit registries. The index ranges from 0 to 8, with higher values indicating the availability of more credit information, from either a public registry or a private bureau, to facilitate lending decisions.
Index of legal rights for creditors and borrowers (0 - 12)
Strength of legal rights index measures the degree to which collateral and bankruptcy laws protect the rights of borrowers and lenders and thus facilitate lending. The index ranges from 0 to 12, with higher scores indicating that these laws are better designed to expand access to credit.
Foreign bank assets as percent of the total bank assets
Percentage of the total banking assets that are held by foreign banks. A foreign bank is a bank where 50 percent or more of its shares are owned by foreigners.
Stock market (annual data)
Stock market capitalization as percent of GDP
Market capitalization (also known as market value) is the share price times the number of shares outstanding (including their several classes) for listed domestic companies. Investment funds, unit trusts, and companies whose only business goal is to hold shares of other listed companies are excluded. Data are end of year values.
Stock market capitalization, billion USD
Market capitalization (also known as market value) is the share price times the number of shares outstanding (including their several classes) for listed domestic companies. Investment funds, unit trusts, and companies whose only business goal is to hold shares of other listed companies are excluded. Data are end of year values converted to U.S. dollars using corresponding year-end foreign exchange rates.
Stock market turnover ratio
Turnover ratio is the value of domestic shares traded divided by their market capitalization. The value is annualized by multiplying the monthly average by 12.
Number of companies listed on the stock exchange
Listed domestic companies, including foreign companies which are exclusively listed, are those which have shares listed on an exchange at the end of the year. Investment funds, unit trusts, and companies whose only business goal is to hold shares of other listed companies, such as holding companies and investment companies, regardless of their legal status, are excluded. A company with several classes of shares is counted once. Only companies admitted to listing on the exchange are included.
Stock market value traded, percent of GDP
Total value of all traded shares in a stock market exchange as a percentage of GDP. The following deflation method is used: {(0.5)*[Ft/P_et + Ft-1/P_et-1]}/[GDPt/P_at] where F is stock market capitalization, P_e is end-of period CPI, and P_a is average annual CPI.
Mutual fund assets, percent of GDP
Ratio of assets of mutual funds to GDP. A mutual fund is a type of managed collective investment scheme that pools money from many investors to purchase securities. Data taken from a variety of sources such as Investment Company Institute and national sources.
Stock price volatility, percent
Stock price volatility is the average of the 360-day volatility of the national stock market index.
Stock market return, percent
Stock market return is the growth rate of annual average stock market index. Annual average stock market index is constructed by taking the average of the daily stock market indexes available at Bloomberg.
Stock market capitalization w/o top 10 firms, percent of total market cap
Value of listed shares outside of the top ten largest companies to total value of all listed shares.
Stock market value traded w/o top 10 firms, % of total value traded
Value of all traded shares outside of the top ten largest traded companies as a share of total value of all traded shares in a stock market exchange. WFE provides data on the exchange level. This variable is aggregated up to the country level by taking a simple average over exchanges.
Investment financed with equity or stock sales, percent of total investment
The estimated proportion of purchases of fixed assets that was financed by the owners’ contribution or issue of new equity shares.
Insurance, non-banks and pensions (annual data)
Life insurance premium volume, percent of GDP
Ratio of life insurance premium volume to GDP. Premium volume is the insurer's direct premiums earned (if Property/Casualty) or received (if Life/Health) during the previous calendar year. Premium data are taken from various issues of Sigma reports (Swiss Re). Data on GDP in US dollars is from the electronic version of the World Development Indicators.
Non-life insurance premium volume, percent of GDP
Ratio of non-life insurance premium volume to GDP. Premium volume is the insurer's direct premiums earned (if Property/Casualty) or received (if Life/Health) during the previous calendar year. Premium data are taken from various issues of Sigma reports (Swiss Re). Data on GDP in US dollars is from the electronic version of the World Development Indicators.
Insurance company assets, percent of GDP
Ratio of assets of insurance companies to GDP. Data taken from a variety of sources such as AXCO and national sources.
Pension fund assets as percent of GDP
Ratio of assets of pension funds to GDP. A pension fund is any plan, fund, or scheme that provides retirement income. Data taken from a variety of sources such as OECD, AIOS, FIAP and national sources.
Nonbank financial institutions assets, percent of GDP
...Claims on domestic real nonfinancial sector by other financial institutions as a share of GDP, calculated using the following deflation method: {(0.5)*[Ft/P_et + Ft-1/P_et-1]}/[GDPt/P_at] where F is other financial institutions' claims, P_e is end-of period CPI, and P_a is average annual CPI. Raw data are from the IMF’s International Financial Statistics.
Innovation (annual data)
Innovations index (0-100)
The Global Innovation Index includes two sub-indices: the Innovation Input Sub-Index and the Innovation Output Sub-Index. The first sub-index is based on five pillars: Institutions, Human capital and research, Infrastructure, Market sophistication, and Business sophistication. The second sub-index is based on two pillars: Knowledge and technology outputs and Creative outputs. Each pillar is divided into sub-pillars and each sub-pillar is composed of individual indicators.
Research and development expenditure, percent of GDP
Expenditures for research and development are current and capital expenditures (both public and private) on creative work undertaken systematically to increase knowledge, including knowledge of humanity, culture, and society, and the use of knowledge for new applications. R&D covers basic research, applied research, and experimental development.
Information technology exports, percent of total goods exports
Information and communication technology goods exports include computers and peripheral equipment, communication equipment, consumer electronic equipment, electronic components, and other information and technology goods (miscellaneous).
High technology exports
High-technology exports are products with high R&D intensity, such as in aerospace, computers, pharmaceuticals, scientific instruments, and electrical machinery. Data are in current U.S. dollars.
High tech exports, percent of manufactured exports
High-technology exports are products with high R&D intensity, such as in aerospace, computers, pharmaceuticals, scientific instruments, and electrical machinery.
Patent applications by residents
Patent applications are worldwide patent applications filed through the Patent Cooperation Treaty procedure or with a national patent office for exclusive rights for an invention--a product or process that provides a new way of doing something or offers a new technical solution to a problem. A patent provides protection for the invention to the owner of the patent for a limited period, generally 20 years.
Taxes (annual data)
Corporate tax rate
The highest statutory corporate tax rate at central government level. Rates are provided by KPMG member firms.
Personal income tax rate
The highest statutory marginal tax rate applied to the taxable income of individuals. Rates are provided by KPMG member firms.
Indirect tax rate
Statutory VAT rates or consumption taxes similar to a VAT. Rates are provided by KPMG member firms.
Tax revenue, percent of GDP
Tax revenue refers to compulsory transfers to the central government for public purposes. Certain compulsory transfers such as fines, penalties, and most social security contributions are excluded. Refunds and corrections of erroneously collected tax revenue are treated as negative revenue.
Tax rate, percent of commercial profits
Total tax rate measures the amount of taxes and mandatory contributions payable by businesses after accounting for allowable deductions and exemptions as a share of commercial profits. Taxes withheld (such as personal income tax) or collected and remitted to tax authorities (such as value added taxes, sales taxes or goods and service taxes) are excluded.
Tax preparation time, in hours
Time to prepare and pay taxes is the time, in hours per year, it takes to prepare, file, and pay (or withhold) three major types of taxes: the corporate income tax, the value added or sales tax, and labor taxes, including payroll taxes and social security contributions.
Number of taxes paid by businesses
Tax payments by businesses are the total number of taxes paid by businesses, including electronic filing. The tax is counted as paid once a year even if payments are more frequent.
Taxes on goods and services, percent of total revenue
Taxes on goods and services include general sales and turnover or value added taxes, selective excises on goods, selective taxes on services, taxes on the use of goods or property, taxes on extraction and production of minerals, and profits of fiscal monopolies.
Taxes on international trade, percent of total revenue
Taxes on international trade include import duties, export duties, profits of export or import monopolies, exchange profits, and exchange taxes.
Income, profits, and capital gains taxes: percent of revenue
Taxes on income, profits, and capital gains are levied on the actual or presumptive net income of individuals, on the profits of corporations and enterprises, and on capital gains, whether realized or not, on land, securities, and other assets. Intragovernmental payments are eliminated in consolidation.
Governance and political system (annual data)
Rule of law index (-2.5 weak; 2.5 strong)
The index for Rule of Law captures perceptions of the extent to which agents have confidence in and abide by the rules of society, and in particular the quality of contract enforcement, property rights, the police, and the courts, as well as the likelihood of crime and violence.
Government effectiveness index (-2.5 weak; 2.5 strong)
The index of Government Effectiveness captures perceptions of the quality of public services, the quality of the civil service and the degree of its independence from political pressures, the quality of policy formulation and implementation, and the credibility of the government's commitment to such policies.
Control of corruption (-2.5 weak; 2.5 strong)
The index for Control of Corruption captures perceptions of the extent to which public power is exercised for private gain, including both petty and grand forms of corruption, as well as capture of the state by elites and private interests.
Regulatory quality index (-2.5 weak; 2.5 strong)
The index of Regulatory Quality captures perceptions of the ability of the government to formulate and implement sound policies and regulations that permit and promote private sector development.
Voice and accountability index (-2.5 weak; 2.5 strong)
The index for Voice and Accountability captures perceptions of the extent to which the citizens are able to participate in selecting their government, as well as freedom of expression, freedom of association, and a free media.
Political stability index (-2.5 weak; 2.5 strong)
The index of Political Stability and Absence of Violence/Terrorism measures perceptions of the likelihood that the government will be destabilized or overthrown by unconstitutional or violent means, including politically-motivated violence and terrorism. The index is an average of several other indexes from the Economist Intelligence Unit, the World Economic Forum, and the Political Risk Services, among others.
Corruption Perceptions Index, 100 = no corruption
The Corruption Perceptions Index is an indicator of perceptions of public sector corruption, i.e. administrative and political corruption. The indicator values are determined by using information from surveys and assessments of corruption, collected by a variety of reputable institutions.
Political rights index, 7 (weak) - 1 (strong)
The Political Rights ratings from the Freedom House evaluate three categories: electoral process, political pluralism and participation, and the functioning of government. The index ranges from 1 (strong rights) to 7 (weak rights).
Civil liberties index, 7 (weak) - 1 (strong)
The Civil Liberties index from the Freedom House evaluate the following: freedom of expression and belief, associational and organizational rights, rule of law, and personal autonomy and individual rights. The rating ranges from 1 (strong liberties) to 7 (no liberties).
Women in parliament, percent
Women in parliaments are the percentage of parliamentary seats in a single or lower chamber held by women.
Economic freedom (annual data)
Property rights index (0-100)
The property rights index measures the degree to which a country’s laws protect private property rights and the degree to which its government enforces those laws. It also assesses the likelihood that private property will be expropriated and analyzes the independence of the judiciary, the existence of corruption within the judiciary, and the ability of individuals and businesses to enforce contracts. Higher index values denote more certain legal protection of property.
Freedom from corruption index (0-100)
The score for the Freedom of corruption index is derived primarily from Transparency International’s Corruption Perceptions Index. For countries that are not covered in the CPI the freedom from corruption score is determined by using information from internationally recognized and reliable sources. Higher index values denote lower level of corruption.
Fiscal freedom index (0-100)
The Fiscal freedom index measures the tax burden imposed by government. It is composed of three quantitative factors: the top marginal tax rate on individual income, the top marginal tax rate on corporate income, and the total tax burden as a percentage of GDP.
Business freedom index (0-100)
The Business freedom index is based on 10 indicators, using data from the World Bank’s Doing Business study: Starting a business-procedures (number), time (days), cost (% of income per capita), and minimum capital (% of income per capita); Obtaining a license—procedures (number), time (days), and cost (% of income per capita); Closing a business—time (years), cost (% of estate), and recovery rate (cents on the dollar).
Labor freedom index (0-100)
The Labor freedom index is composed of six quantitative factors: ratio of minimum wage to the average value added per worker, hindrance to hiring additional workers, rigidity of hours, difficulty of firing redundant employees, legally mandated notice period, and mandatory severance pay. The index is based on data collected in connection with the World Bank’s Doing Business study.
Monetary freedom index (0-100)
The score for the Monetary freedom index is based on two factors: the weighted average inflation rate for the most recent three years and price controls. Higher index values denote price stability without microeconomic intervention.
Trade freedom index (0-100)
The Trade freedom index is based on two indicators: the trade-weighted average tariff rate and non-tariff barriers (including quantity, price, regulatory, customs and investment restrictions, and direct government intervention).
Investment freedom index (0-100)
The Investment freedom index evaluates a variety of investment restrictions (burdensome bureaucracy, restrictions on land ownership, expropriation of investments without fair compensation, foreign exchange controls, capital control, security problems, a lack of basic investment infrastructure, etc.). Points are deducted from the ideal score of 100 for each of the restrictions found in a country’s investment regime.
Financial freedom index (0-100)
The Financial freedom index evaluates: the extent of government regulation of financial services, the degree of state intervention in banks and other financial firms through direct and indirect ownership, the extent of financial and capital market development, government influence on the allocation of credit and openness to foreign competition. Higher index values denote banking efficiency and independence from government control and interference in the financial sector.
Economic freedom, overall index (0-100)
The Overall index of economic freedom has ten components grouped into four broad categories: Rule of Law; Limited Government; Regulatory Efficiency and Open Markets. The overall economic freedom is scored on a scale of 0 to 100, where 100 represents the maximum freedom.
Health (annual data)
Health spending per capita
Total health expenditure is the sum of public and private health expenditures as a ratio of total population. It covers the provision of health services (preventive and curative), family planning activities, nutrition activities, and emergency aid designated for health but does not include provision of water and sanitation. Data are in current U.S. dollars.
Health spending as percent of GDP
Total health expenditure is the sum of public and private health expenditure. It covers the provision of health services (preventive and curative), family planning activities, nutrition activities, and emergency aid designated for health but does not include provision of water and sanitation.
Life expectancy, in years
Life expectancy at birth indicates the number of years a newborn infant would live if prevailing patterns of mortality at the time of its birth were to stay the same throughout its life.
The number of births per 1000 people, per year
Crude birth rate indicates the number of live births occurring during the year, per 1,000 population estimated at midyear. Subtracting the crude death rate from the crude birth rate provides the rate of natural increase, which is equal to the rate of population change in the absence of migration.
Death rate, per 1000 people
Crude death rate indicates the number of deaths occurring during the year, per 1,000 population estimated at midyear. Subtracting the crude death rate from the crude birth rate provides the rate of natural increase, which is equal to the rate of population change in the absence of migration.
Fertility rate, births per woman
Total fertility rate represents the number of children that would be born to a woman if she were to live to the end of her childbearing years and bear children in accordance with age-specific fertility rates of the specified year.
Prevalence of HIV, percent of the population ages 15-49
Prevalence of HIV refers to the percentage of people ages 15-49 who are infected with HIV.
Cases of Tuberculosis per 100,000 people
Incidence of tuberculosis is the estimated number of new and relapse tuberculosis cases arising in a given year, expressed as the rate per 100,000 population. All forms of TB are included, including cases in people living with HIV. Estimates for all years are recalculated as new information becomes available and techniques are refined, so they may differ from those published previously.
Percent rural population with access to drinking water
Access to an improved water source refers to the percentage of the population using an improved drinking water source. The improved drinking water source includes piped water on premises (piped household water connection located inside the user’s dwelling, plot or yard), and other improved drinking water sources (public taps or standpipes, tube wells or boreholes, protected dug wells, protected springs, and rainwater collection).
Percent urban population with access to drinking water
Suicide mortality rate, per 100,000 population
Education (annual data)
Public spending on education, percent of GDP
General government expenditure on education (current, capital, and transfers) is expressed as a percentage of GDP. It includes expenditure funded by transfers from international sources to government. General government usually refers to local, regional and central governments.
Public spending on education, percent of public spending
Total general (local, regional and central) government expenditure on education (current, capital, and transfers), expressed as a percentage of total general government expenditure on all sectors (including health, education, social services, etc.). It includes expenditure funded by transfers from international sources to government. Public education expenditure includes spending by local/municipal, regional and national governments (excluding household contributions) on educational institutions (both public and private), education administration, and subsidies for private entities (students/households and other privates entities). In some instances data on total public expenditure on education refers only to the ministry of education and can exclude other ministries that spend a part of their budget on educational activities. The indicator is calculated by dividing total public expenditure on education incurred by all government agencies/departments by the total government expenditure and multiplying by 100. For more information, consult the UNESCO Institute of Statistics website: http://www.uis.unesco.org/Education/
Literacy rate
Percentage of the population age 15 and above who can, with understanding, read and write a short, simple statement on their everyday life. Generally, ‘literacy’ also encompasses ‘numeracy’, the ability to make simple arithmetic calculations. This indicator is calculated by dividing the number of literates aged 15 years and over by the corresponding age group population and multiplying the result by 100.
Female literacy rate, ages 15-24
Youth (15-24) literacy rate (%). Female is the number of females age 15 to 24 years who can both read and write with understanding a short simple statement on their everyday life, divided by the female population in that age group. Generally, ‘literacy’ also encompasses ‘numeracy’, the ability to make simple arithmetic calculations.
Male literacy rate, ages 15-24
Youth (15-24) literacy rate (%). Male is the number of males age 15 to 24 years who can both read and write with understanding a short simple statement on their everyday life, divided by the male population in that age group. Generally, ‘literacy’ also encompasses ‘numeracy’, the ability to make simple arithmetic calculations.
Youth literacy rate, ages 15-24
Youth (15-24) literacy rate (%). Total is the number of people age 15 to 24 years who can both read and write with understanding a short simple statement on their everyday life, divided by the population in that age group. Generally, ‘literacy’ also encompasses ‘numeracy’, the ability to make simple arithmetic calculations.
Student teacher ratio, primary school
Primary school pupil-teacher ratio is the average number of pupils per teacher in primary school.
Primary school completion rate
Primary completion rate, or gross intake ratio to the last grade of primary education, is the number of new entrants (enrollments minus repeaters) in the last grade of primary education, regardless of age, divided by the population at the entrance age for the last grade of primary education. Data limitations preclude adjusting for students who drop out during the final year of primary education.
Primary school starting age
Entrance age of primary is the age at which students would enter primary education, assuming they had started at the official entrance age for the lowest level of education, had studied full-time throughout and had progressed through the system without repeating or skipping a grade.
Ratio of female to male pupils in primary school
Gender parity index for gross enrollment ratio in primary education is the ratio of girls to boys enrolled at primary level in public and private schools.
Ratio of female to male students in secondary school
Gender parity index for gross enrollment ratio in secondary education is the ratio of girls to boys enrolled at secondary level in public and private schools.
Ratio of female to male students in tertiary level education
Gender parity index for gross enrollment ratio in tertiary education is the ratio of women to men enrolled at tertiary level in public and private schools.
Preprimary school enrollment, percent of all eligible children
Total enrollment in pre-primary education, regardless of age, expressed as a percentage of the total population of official pre-primary education age. GER can exceed 100% due to the inclusion of over-aged and under-aged students because of early or late school entrance and grade repetition.
Primary school enrollment, percent of all eligible children
Total enrollment in primary education, regardless of age, expressed as a percentage of the population of official primary education age. GER can exceed 100% due to the inclusion of over-aged and under-aged students because of early or late school entrance and grade repetition.
Secondary school enrollment, percent of all eligible children
Total enrollment in secondary education, regardless of age, expressed as a percentage of the population of official secondary education age. GER can exceed 100% due to the inclusion of over-aged and under-aged students because of early or late school entrance and grade repetition.
Tertiary school enrollment, percent of all eligible children
Total enrollment in tertiary education (ISCED 5 to 8), regardless of age, expressed as a percentage of the total population of the five-year age group following on from secondary school leaving.
Trained teachers in primary education, percent of total
Trained teachers in primary education are the percentage of primary school teachers who have received the minimum organized teacher training (pre-service or in-service) required for teaching in a given country.
Globalization (annual data)
Globalization index (0-100)
The overall index of globalization covers the economic, social, and political dimensions of globalization. Higher values denote greater globalization.
Economic globalization index (0-100)
Economic globalization has two dimensions: actual economic flows and restrictions to trade and capital. The sub-index on actual economic flows includes data on trade, FDI, and portfolio investment. The sub-index on restrictions takes into account hidden import barriers, mean tariff rates, taxes on international trade (as a share of current revenue), and an index of capital controls.
Political globalization index (0-100)
The degree of political globalization is determined by the number of embassies and high commissions in a country, the number of international organizations to which the country is a member, the number of UN peace missions a country participated in, and the number of treaties signed between two or more states.
Social globalization index (0-100)
Social globalization has three dimensions: personal contacts, information flows, and cultural proximity. The sub-index on personal contacts includes international telecom traffic, degree of tourism, transfers, foreign population, and number of international letters. The sub-index on information flows includes number of internet users, share of households with a television set, and trade in newspapers. The sub-index on cultural proximity includes trade in books and number of McDonald’s restaurants and Ikea located in a country.
Country risk (annual data)
Short-term political risk (1=low, 7=high)
Short Term political risk = Political risk related to short-term export transactions. Political risk covers the risks of foreign exchange shortages, wars, revolutions, natural disasters and arbitrary government actions. Countries are classified into seven categories (from 1-low risk to 7-high risk) reflecting the intensity of political risk.
Long-term political risk (1=low, 7=high)
Long Term political risk = Political risk related to export transactions with a credit period of more than two years. Political risk covers the risks of foreign exchange shortages, wars, revolutions, natural disasters and arbitrary government actions. Countries are classified into seven categories (from 1-low risk to 7-high risk) reflecting the intensity of political risk.
Special transactions risk, (1=low, 7=high)
Special cash transactions are mainly contracting works and projects with long realization periods but payable on a cash basis as the work progresses. Political risk covers the risks of foreign exchange shortages, wars, revolutions, natural disasters and arbitrary government actions Countries are classified into seven categories (from 1-low risk to 7-high risk) reflecting the intensity of political risk.
Transfer risk, (1=low, 7=high)
Transfer risk = Political risk related to countries’ solvency. Countries are classified into seven categories: from 1 (low risk) to 7 (high risk).
Expropriation risk, (1=low, 7=high)
Risk of expropriation and government action = The risk of expropriation and government action covers the risks of expropriation, breach of contract by the government, a possible negative change of attitude towards foreign investors, and also risks related to the functioning of the judiciary system. Countries are classified into seven categories: from 1 (low risk) to 7 (high risk).
War risk, (1=low, 7=high)
War Risk = War risk covers the risks of external conflicts and the risks of domestic political violence. Domestic political violence includes terrorism, civil unrest, socio-economic conflicts, racial and ethnic tension and the extreme case of civil war. Countries are classified into seven categories (from 1-low risk to 7-high risk) reflecting the intensity of war risk.
Industry: Oil, coal, and electricity (annual data)
Oil reserves, billion barrels
Proved reserves of crude oil are the estimated quantities of all liquids defined as crude oil, which geological and engineering data demonstrate with reasonable certainty to be recoverable in future years from reservoirs under existing economic and operating conditions.
Oil production, thousand barrels per day
Oil production includes the production of crude oil (including lease condensate), natural gas plant liquids, and other liquids, and refinery processing gain. Negative values indicate a net refinery processing loss.
Gasoline production, thousand barrels per day
Gasoline production includes production of: conventional gasoline; all types of oxygenated gasoline, including gasohol; and reformulated gasoline; but excludes production of aviation gasoline. Volumetric data on blending components, such as oxygenates, are not counted in data on finished motor gasoline until the blending components are blended into the gasoline.
Jet fuel production, thousand barrels per day
Liquefied petroleum gas production, thousand barrels per day
Oil consumption, thousand barrels per day
Oil consumption (Total petroleum consumption) includes internal consumption, refinery fuel and loss, and bunkering. Also included, where available, is direct combustion of crude oil.
Gasoline consumption, thousand barrels per day
Jet fuel consumption, thousand barrels per day
Liquefied petroleum gas consumption, thousand barrels per day
Liquefied petroleum gases include ethane, ethylene, propane, propylene, normal butane, butylene, isobutane, and isobutylene. The Liquefied Petroleum Gases consumption also includes, where data are available, liquefied petroleum gases sold directly from natural gas processing plants for fuel or chemical uses and pentanes plus.
Coal production, thousand short tons
Total primary coal production (Coal includes anthracite, subanthracite, bituminous, subbituminous, lignite, brown coal, and oil shale.)
Coal consumption, thousand short tons
Coal consumption includes anthracite, subanthracite, bituminous, subbituminous, lignite, brown coal, and oil shale. It also includes net imports of metallurgical coke.
Coal imports, thousand short tons
Coal exports, thousand short tons
Electricity production, billion kilowatthours
Total electricity net generation (Net generation excludes the energy consumed by the generating units)
Nuclear power generation, billion kilowatthours
Nuclear electricity net generation (Net generation excludes the energy consumed by the generating units)
Hydroelectricity generation, billion kilowatthours
Hydroelectric generation excludes generation from hydroelectric pumped storage.
Electricity consumption, billion kilowatthours
Total Electricity Net Consumption = total net electricity generation + electricity imports - electricity exports – electricity transmission and distribution losses. Net consumption excludes the energy consumed by the generating units.
Electricity production capacity, million kilowatts
Total Electricity Installed Capacity (Million Kilowatts)
Electricity imports, billion kilowatthours
Electricity exports, billion kilowatthours
Renewable power generation, billion kilowatthours
Total Renewables Electricity Net Generation (Net generation excludes the energy consumed by the generating units and also excludes generation from hydroelectric pumped storage)
Renewable power consumption, billion kilowatthours
Total Renewables Electricity Net Consumption (Net consumption excludes the energy consumed by the generating units)
Crime (annual data)
Number of prisoners per 100,000 people
Homicides per 100,000 people
Kidnappings per 100,000 people
Robberies per 100,000 people
Thefts per 100,000 people
Religions (annual data)
Buddhists as percent of the total population
Christians as percent of the total population
People practicing Hinduism as percent of the population
People practicing Judaism as percent of the population
Muslims as percent of the total population
Eastern Orthodox Christians as percent of the total population
Protestant Christians as percent of the total population
Catholic Christians as percent of the total population
Sunni Muslims as percent of the total population
Shia Muslims as percent of the total population
Non religious people as percent of the population
Other indicators (annual data)
Population size, in millions
Total population is based on the de facto definition of population, which counts all residents regardless of legal status or citizenship. The values shown are midyear estimates.
Percent urban population
Urban population refers to people living in urban areas as defined by national statistical offices. The data are collected and smoothed by United Nations Population Division.
The cost of starting a business, % of income per capita
The indicator includes all official fees and fees for legal or professional services if such services are required by law. The company law, the commercial code, and specific regulations and fee schedules are used as sources for calculating costs. The indicator excludes bribes.
The number of documents required for exporting activity
The total number of documents required per shipment to export goods, including documents required by government ministries, customs authorities, port and container terminal authorities, health and technical control agencies, and banks. Also: all documents required by banks for the issuance or securing of a letter of credit. Documents that are renewed annually and/or that do not require renewal per shipment are not included.
The number of documents needed for importing goods
All documents required per shipment to import goods are recorded. It is assumed that the contract has already been agreed upon and signed by both parties. Documents required for clearance by government ministries, customs authorities, port and container terminal authorities, health and technical control agencies and banks are taken into account. Since payment is by letter of credit, all documents required by banks for the issuance or securing of a letter of credit are also taken into account. Documents that are renewed annually and that do not require renewal per shipment (for example, an annual tax clearance certificate) are not included.
Military spending, in million U.S. dollars
Military spending includes expenditure on peacekeeping, defense ministries, paramilitary forces, and military space activities. Also: military and civil personnel, including retirement pensions; operations and maintenance; procurement; military research and development; and military aid. Defense and current expenditure for past military activities, such as for veterans' benefits, demobilization, conversion, and weapon destruction, are not included.
Military spending, percent of GDP
Military spending includes expenditure on peacekeeping, defense ministries, paramilitary forces, and military space activities. Also: military and civil personnel, including retirement pensions; operations and maintenance; procurement; military research and development; and military aid. Defense and current expenditure for past military activities, such as for veterans' benefits, demobilization, conversion, and weapon destruction, are not included.
Happiness Index, 0 (unhappy) - 10 (happy)
The Happiness ranking is part of the World Happiness Report. The country scores are based on a survey in which respondents evaluate the quality of their current lives on a scale of 0 to 10.
Land area in sq. km
Land area is a country's total area, excluding area under inland water bodies, national claims to continental shelf, and exclusive economic zones. In most cases the definition of inland water bodies includes major rivers and lakes.
Female population, percent of total
Female population is the percentage of the population that is female. Population is based on the de facto definition of population, which counts all residents regardless of legal status or citizenship.
Population ages 0-14, percent of total
Total population below the age of 14 as a percentage of the total population. Population is based on the de facto definition of population, which counts all residents regardless of legal status or citizenship.
Population ages 65 and above, percent of total
Population ages 65 and above as a percentage of the total population. Population is based on the de facto definition of population, which counts all residents regardless of legal status or citizenship.
Derivative indicator
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